EASA TCO – European Safety Authorisations for Foreign Air Operators

In General – A single European system for vetting the safety performance of
foreign (non-EU) commercial air transport (CAT) operators. One single safety authorisation valid in 32 EASA Member States.

Foreign airlines’ surveillance is an ICAO Standard and already implemented for many years in several other countries.

Europe centralises the process to authorise third-country operators performing commercial air transport operations into the EU,  issuing a single safety authorisation by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) under the new Implementing Rule (Part-TCO) as of 26 May 2014.

Third Country Operator (TCO) refers to non-European aircraft operators conducting commercial air transport  flights (CAT) into the EU. This includes operators which are wet leased-in by, or code-sharing with an EU operator when commercial flights to any territory subject to the provisions of the Treaty of the European Union are performed.

The TCO requirements do not apply to non-commercial operations and there are also provisions to allow for ‘one-off’ or short-notice non-scheduled flights by commercial air transport operators that do not hold a TCO authorisation. Operating permits (relating to commercial traffic rights) may also be required by individual member states.

The purpose of the authorisation is to confirm that the operator meets international operational and safety standards, in compliance with ICAO Annex 6. The authorisation issued by EASA will become a prerequisite for EU Member States to grant operating permits/traffic rights.

Authorisations issued under Part-TCO carries no expiration date, but becomes invalid when not been used for a period of 24 months. The Authorisation will not be subject to fees.


The actual List of TCO approved Airlines (as for the 15. June 2016) can be found below



Applicability of Part-TCO

Any third-country operator who intends to perform commercial air transport (CAT) operations into, within or out of any of the following territories requires an authorisation issued by the Agency under Part-TCO:

  • the 28 Member States of the European Union
  • the 4 EFTA States (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland)
  • the following territories in which Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 , the so called “Basic Regulation” applies: Gibraltar, Åland Islands, Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, Réunion, Saint-Martin, Mayotte

Remark: List not complete

Authorisation Process

The European approach to the authorisation of third country operators will essentially consist of a validation of the Air Operator Certificate (AOC) issued to a foreign air operator by its State’s competent aviation authority. EASA will assign the categories with a strong emphasis on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Universal Safety Oversight Audit Program (click here: USOAP) performance of the operator.

EASA categories will be based on the following criteria

State of the Operator:
• ICAO USOAP reports (lack of implementation)
• ICAO SSC (significant safety concern)
• EU Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft (SAFA) results (aggregated on state of the operator level)
• Consultations pursuant to Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No. 473/2006
• Measures imposed by a member state in accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No. 2111/2005
• Accident data (aggregated on state of the operator level)
• FAA IASA state category

• Accident history
• EU SAFA ratio (if available)
• Size, nature and complexity of the operations
• Adherence to industry standards

Source: National Business Aviation Association:

EASA will validate the foreign AOC by issuing an EASA TCO Authorisation document accompanied by Technical Specifications, setting out the scope of operations authorised in the EU.

Part-TCO is since 26. May 2014 in force. All commercial operators who traveled to Europe had to submit their applications until 26.November 2014.  After this date,  a 24-month administrative processing period started, in which operators should continue applying to individual states for operating admittance. The transition period of PART TCO  will be finalized on 26 November 2016.

Once the TCO program is in place, new operators traveling to Europe will be required to submit at TCO application 30 days prior to their trip.

The TCO authorisation process will consist of four  phases:

TCO_ProcessPhase 1: Application – Operator Data – Determination of Assessment Category. Operators shall apply for a TCO authorization at least 30 days prior to the start of the intended operation.

Phase 2: Questionnaire -Technical Assessment-Validation of an AOC. Appliance of ICAO standards – operation of aircraft -Annex 6

Phase 3: Authorisation Decision – Authorisation Letter-Specifications-Publication. The authorisation is accompanied by a SPECIFICATION associated to the TCO Authorisation, which contains details of the authorised operation.

Phase 4: Continuous Monitoring – Periodic re-assessment – ad-hoc investigation – enforcement. The safety performance of the operator is continuously monitored. A dedicated web-interface will support all communications on-line between EASA and the applicant. The operator is responsible to keep relevant information current at all times via the web-based TCO platform.

Risk-Based Approach

EASA will employ a risk-based model to determine the appropriate assessment methodology to be applied in each authorisation process.


The issuance of an authorisation will be subject to EASA’s level of confidence in the foreign AOC, as determined by the competence of its holder to discharge its responsibilities and the safety oversight capability of the certifying State.

Operators will be grouped into three different categories (A,B,C) that correspond to EASA’s level of confidence (High, Medium, Low) into the state of the operator and the operator itself.

A pre-defined set of credible internal and external data sources will be continuously analysed to keep the model up-to-date.  The lower EASA’s certainty about the applicant’s reliability or the less credible data available for an applicant operator or the State of the Operator, the higher will be the assessment category which corresponds to the level of scrutiny applied during the assessment.

A TCO operator will need to prove compliance with international standards as stipulated in ICAO Annex 6, with other words, an EASA-TCO is a  validation of an existing AOC, issued by an ICAO contracting State.  There are no additional requirements.


TCO_Risk_Approach(compare to – EASA, Andreas Cordes, TCO, Istanbul 10.10.2013 ; National Business Aviation Association:


The European “Safety List” mechanism – EASA TCO complements the EU Safety List (Reg. EU 2111/2005)

The European Safety List mechanism pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005 is governed by the European Commission in Brussels.

Regulations under the responsibility of the European Commission

1. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1206/2011 of 22 November 2011;
2. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1207/2011 of 22 November 2011;
3. Commission Regulation (EC) No 29/2009 of 16 January 2009;
4. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1265/2007 of 26 October 2007;
5. Commission Decision C(2011)2611. (CPDL exemption)
6. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1332/2011 (ACAS II 7.1 and traffic avoidance procedures)
7. Noise: Council Directive 80/51/EEC of 20 December 1979 and Directive 14/1992.

Remark: List is not complete.


EASA and the European Commission ensure that both instruments are closely coordinated, involving also the European Member States. Operators subject to a ban or operating restriction in the EU Safety List are eligible to apply with EASA for an assessment under Part-TCO.

The European Commission continues to be in charge of of the EU “black list” (Reg EU 2111/2005).
The EASA TCO authorisation scheme follows a „white list“ principle and complements the EU safety list. Operators subject to an EU- operating-ban may apply for a TCO Authorisation. Depending on the circumstances the case will be coordinated with the European Commission.

PART TCO – Interaction with EU-OPS provisions on code-sharing

Holding a TCO authorisation alone is not sufficient in complying with the code-share requirements of Regulation (EU) No 965/2012. The code-share provisions apply in addition to the requirements of Part-TCO because they involve EU rules as well as ICAO standards.

A third country operator code-sharing with an EU carrier will be subject to the requirements of both and will be obliged to undergo comprehensive audits for the initial verification of compliance and continuous compliance with the applicable ICAO Standards.

Additional requirements for third country operator , performing CAT within European Community

EASA TCO  is a safety-related part of foreign operator assessment  and a  mandatory prerequisite condition for granting operating permits/traffic rights within the European Union.

Operating permits remain an area of national responsibility and will continue to be issued by Member States. Therefore, TCO Operators  must comply with the Standardised European Rules of the Air (SERA) and Airspace Usage Requirements (AUR). The State Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), the Single European Sky (SES) implementing rules and in particular the Interoperability rules also apply.


Current  TCO – applications and certifications situation, stand 15. June 2016

EASA has not yet complete all applications , here a short overview –

In Total 643 Airlines applied for a TCO-Certification.  EASA has approved 403 Airline applications and 231 are still in progress.  9 Applications were  rejected or on hold, due to an existing  EU-Ban.

Applications progress by Region





Applications progress by Countries




TCO - Airline Applications Approved (15. June 2016)

2106701 Ontario, Inc.
Abx Air, Inc.
Ace Aviation Services Corporation
Act Havayollari A.S.
Ado Havacilik A.S.
Advanced Air Management, Inc.
Aero Jet Services, Llc
Aero Personal, S.A. De C.V.
Aerojet, Ltd
Aerolineas Argentinas S.A.
Aeronexus Corporate (Pty) Ltd
Aerovias De Mexico S.A. De C.V.
Aerovics, S.A. De C.V.
Air Algerie
Air Arabia
Air Arabia Egypt
Air Arabia Jordan
Air Arabia Maroc
Air Astana Jsc
Air Borinquen, Inc.
Air Cairo
Air Canada
Air Canada Rouge Lp As Represented
By Its General Partner Air Canada Rouge General Partner Inc.
Air China Cargo Company Limited
Air China Ltd
Air Company “Aviacon Zitotrans”
Air Leisure
Air Mauritius Ltd.
Air Namibia (Pty) Ltd
Air New Zealand Ltd
Air Ocean Maroc
Air Paradise, Inc.
Air Pink
Air Rutter Int. Llc
Air Seychelles Ltd.
Air Transat A.T. Inc.
Air Transport International, Inc.
Air Trek, Inc.
Airbridgecargo Airlines Limited Liability Company
Aircompany “Atlasjet Ukraine” L.L.C
Airenka Hava Tasimaciligi
Airline Turkmenistan
Airmed International, Llc
Airways Montenegro D.O.O.
Aitheras Aviation Group Llc
Ak Havacilik Ve Ulastirma Hizmetler
Akcionarsko Drustvo Za Vazdusni Saobracaj Saobracaj Air Serbia Beograd
Al Jaber Aviation
Alia – The Royal Jordanian Airlines
Alkan Air
All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd.
Allpoints Jet Co., Ltd
Almasria Universal Airlines
American Airlines, Inc.
Antair, S.A. De C.V.
Arab Wings
Arkasair Havacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.
Arkia Israeli Airlines Ltd
Arrow Aviation Ltd
Ashley Aviation Ltd.
Asiana Airlines, Inc.
Atlas Air Inc.
Atlasjet Havacilik As
Atp Havacilik Ticaret A.S.
Atran L.L.C.
Aviacompany “Aviastar-Tu”
Aviation Bridge Ltd.
Aviation Consultants Inc.
Aviation Horizons, Ltd
Avjet Corporation
Awesome Flight Services (Pty) Ltd
Azul Linhas Aereas Brasileiras S.A.
Azur Air Limited Liability Company
Azur Air Ukraine Airlines, Llc
Bajaj Aviation Pvt. Ltd.
Beijing Airlines Co., Ltd.
Beijing Capital Airlines Co., Ltd (Car121)
Belavia – Belarusian Airlines
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Limited
Bon Air Havacilik Tic. Ve San. A.S.
Borajet Havacilik Tasimacilik Ucak Bakim Onarim Ve Ticaret A.S.
Boydak Havacilik Tasimacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.
Bravo Airways
Burhanettin Kaya Havacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.
Business Jet Services, Ltd.
Business Jet Travel Airline” Ltd
C.A.L. – Cargo Air Lines Ltd.
Cape Clear, Llc
Cargojet Airways Ltd.
Caribbean Heli-Jets, Inc.
Caris Air Services Llc
Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd.
Cb Air Taxi Aereo Ltda.
Cengiz Havacilik A.S.
Centaero Aviation Ltd.
Chantilly Air, Inc.
Chartright Air Inc.
China Airlines Ltd.
China Cargo Airlines Ltd.
China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited
China Eastern Airlines Executive Air
China Eastern Yunnan Airlines Co., Ltd.
China Hainan Airlines Co.Ltd
China Southern Airlines Company Limited
Ciner Hava Taimaciligi A.S.
Clay Lacy Aviation, Inc.
Comlux Aruba N.V.
Constellation Aviation Services Llc
Corporate Air, Llc.
Corporate Eagle Management Services, Inc.
Corporate Flight Alternatives, Inc.
Corporate Flight, Inc
Cove Partners, Llc
Critical Care Medflight, Inc.
Ctp Aviation, Llc
Cumacor 149 (Pty) Ltd
Dalia Air
Dart Limited Trust Distribution
Davinci Jets Llc
Dc Aviation Al Futtaim Llc
Deer Jet (Beijing) Co., Ltd.
Delta Air Lines, Inc.
Delta Private Jets Inc.
Dhl Aviation Eemea B.S.C (C)
Dlf Limited
Doysa Vip Havacilik A.S.
Eagle Express Doo Beograd
El Al Israel Airlines Ltd
Elite Air, Inc
Emair Havacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.
Empire Aviation Group
Ethiopian Airlines Enterprise
Etihad Airways P.J.S.C
Eva Airways Corporation
Eva Airways Corporation
Excelaire, Llc
Execujet Australia Pty. Limited
Execujet Aviation (Pty) Ltd
Execujet Middle East
Execujet New Zealand Limited
Executive Air Charter Of Boca Raton, Inc.
Executive Fliteways, Inc.
Executive Jet Management, Inc.
Federal Express Corporation
Fiba Air Hava Tasimacilik Ve Hizmetleri A.S.
Fl Air Corp.
Flexjet, Llc
Flightworks, Inc.
Fly By Wire International Pvt. Ltd.
Fly Dubai
Fox Flight Inc.
G C Aviation, Inc.
Galaxy Airways Inc.
Gama Aviation
Gama Aviation Llc
Gandel Investments Pty Ltd
Gazpromavia Aviation Company Limited
General Aviation Flying Services Inc
Georgian Airways Ltd.
Global Aviation, Inc.
Global S Aviation
Global Taxi Aereo Ltda
Gulf Air B.S.C. (C)
Gulf Wings
Gunes Ekspres Havacilik (Sun Express)
Heli Air Monaco
Helistar Taxi Aereo, Escola De Pilotagem E Assessoria Aeronautica S.A.
Hong Kong Airlines Corporate Jet Management Limited
Hurkus Havayolu Tasimacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.
I.M.P. Group Limited
Ibex Air Charter S.A.R.L
Icar Air D.O.O.
Ihy Izmir Havayollari A.S.
Image Air Charter Ltd
Infinity Aviation
Interlaken Capital Aviation Service Inc.
Intreprinderea De Stat Compania Aeriana “Air Moldova”
Israir Airlines & Tourism Ltd.
Japan Airlines Company, Ltd.
Jet Airways (India) Ltd.
Jet Charter Inc.
Jet Linx Aviation Llc
Jet Logistics Inc.
Jet Select, Llc
Jetgo Australia Holdings Pty Ltd
Jetport Inc.
Joint Stock Company “Air Management Group”
Joint Stock Company “Jet Air Group”
Joint Stock Company “Red Wings”
Joint Stock Company “Royal Flight Airlines”
Joint Stock Company “The 224-Th Flight Unit State Airlines”
Joint-Stock Company “Ural Airlines”
Jordan Aviation
Js Aviation Company “Rusline”
Jsc “Airline “Taimyr”
Jsc Yamal Airlines
Kaiserair, Inc.
Kalitta Air, Llc
Karnavati Aviation Pvt. Ltd.
Kenya Airways Limited
Key Air, Llc
Keystone Aviation, Llc
Kingfisher Air Services / Air Safari, Inc.
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd.
Korfez Havacilik Turizm Ve Ticaret A.S.
Kreos Aviation Inc
Kugu Havacilik Ve Turizm A.S.
Kuwait Airways
L.J. Associates, Inc.
Liat (1974) Limited
Lider Taxi Aereo S/A ? Air Brasil
Limak Havacilik Iletisim Egitim Ticaret A.S.
Limited Liability Company “Aviaservis”
Limited Liability Company “Maximus Airlines”
Limited Liability Company “Ukrainian Airlines Company “Aerostar”
Limited Liability Company ‘Globus’
Linhas Aereas De Angola, Ep
Llc “Nord Wind”
Llc Ikar
Lloyd Aviation Jet Charter Pty. Ltd.
London Air Services Limited
Longtail Aviation International Limited
Ltd.”I Fly’
Lyon Aviation, Inc.
M&N Equipment, Llc
M/S Pakistan International Airlines Corporation Limited
Macair, Inc.
Madagascar Trans Air
Maine Aviation Aircraft Charter, Llc
Malaysia Airlines Berhad
Marcplan Charter Pty. Ltd.
Marmara Sinai Ve Ticari Yatirimlar A.S.
Mauritania Airlines
Maxem Aviation Pty Ltd
Mayo Aviation, Inc.
Mega Global Air Services (Maldives) Pvt Ltd
Meridian Air Company
Metrojet Limited
Miat Mongolian Airlines
Mid East Jet Charters
Middle East Airlines Air Liban Mea
Midwest Aero Club, Llc
Midwest Jet Management, Llc
Milta Turizm Isletmeleri A.S.
Mjets Limited
Mn Airlines, Llc
Mng Havayollari Ve Tasimacilik A.S.
Mng Jet Havacilik A.S.
Montenegro Airlines A.D.
Morningstar Partners Ltd
Morro Vermelho Taxi Aereo Ltda
Mountain Aviation, Inc
Mt Fly
National Air Cargo Group, Inc.
National Air Carrier: “Azerbaijan Airlines” Cjsc
Neo Taxi Aereo Ltda
Nesma Airlines
Netjets Aviation, Inc
Nile Air
Nippon Cargo Airlines Co.,Ltd
North American Air Charter, Inc.
Northeastern Aviation Corp.
Northern Illinois Flight Center, Inc.
Northern Jet Management, Inc.
Nouvelair Tunisie
Nurol Havacilik A.S.
Oak Air, Ltd
Oint Stock Company Nordavia-Regional Airlines
Ojsc “Saratov Airlines”
Oman Air (S.A.O.C.)
Omni Air International, Inc
Omni Air Transport, Llc
Omsan Havacilik A.S.
Onur Air Tasimacilik A.S.
Ozek Hava Taksi Isletmeciligi Ve Tic. A.S.
Pacific Flight Services Pty Ltd
Palmali Hava Tasimaciligi As
Paradigm Jet Management
Pazchem (Holdings) Ltd.
Pegasus Hava Tasimaciligi A.S.
Petroleum Air Services
Philippine Airlines, Inc.
Phoenix Air Group, Inc
Pioneer Business Services, Llc
Pjsc Aeroflot Russian Airlines
Pobeda Airlines Limited Liability Company
Polar Air Cargo, Inc
Poonawalla Aviation Pvt. Ltd.
Port Sivil Havacilik A.S.
Prescott Support Co.
Prime Jet, Llc
Prince Aviation
Professional Flight Transport, Inc.
Projet Aviation, Llc
Publi Servicios Aereos, S.A. De C.V
Public Joint Stock Company “Aviation Company Dniproavia
Public Joint Stock Company Siberia Airlines
Qantas Airways Limited
Qatar Airways Company (Q.C.S.C.)
Qatar Executive
Ram Express
Red Star Havacilik Hiz. A.S.
Reliance Commercial Dealers Limited
Reliant Air Charter, Inc.
Republic Airline Inc
Reva, Inc.
Richmor Aviation, Inc.
Rossiya Airlines, Joint Stock Company
Rotana Jet Aviation
Royal Air Maroc
Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn. Bhd.
Royal Jet
Royal Wings Co.
Rr Investments, Inc
Sarp Havacilik Lojistik Turizm Sanayi Ve Ticaret A.S.
Saudi Arabian Airlines Corporation
Sc Aviation Inc.
Servicios Aereos Regiomontanos, S.A.
Setair Hava Tasimaciligi Ve Hizmetleri A.S.
Severstal Aircompany Ltd
Silk Way Business Aviation Llc
Silk Way West Airlines Llc
Singapore Airlines Cargo Pte Ltd
Singapore Airlines Limited
Sinojet (Beijing) Co., Ltd
Sky Lease I, Inc.
Sky Line Ulasim Ticaret A.S.
Sky Partners, Inc.
Skybird Aviation, Inc.
Skyservice Business Aviation Inc.
Smart Aviation
South African Airways Pty Ltd
Southern Air, Inc.
Srilankan  Airlines Limited
Star Aviation Spa
Starbase Aviation
Sterling Aviation, Llc
Sun Air Jets, Llc
Sunwest Aviation Ltd.
Sunwing Airlines Inc.
Super Air Hava Tasimaciligi A.S.
Surinaamse Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V.
Tacv, S.A. – Transportes Aereos De Cabo Verde
Tag Aviation Asia Ltd.
Tag Aviation Middle East Wll
Tahe Havacilik Danismanlik Yatirim Taahhut Ticaret Ltd.Sti
Tailwind Havayollari A.S.
Taj Air Ltd.
Talon Air Inc
Tam Linhas Aereas S.A.
Tamir Airways Ltd.
Tango Air, Inc.
Tassili Airlines
Tav Havacilik A.S.
Thai Airways International Public Company Limited
The Flightstar Corporation
The Whitewind Company
Thk Gokcen Havacilik Iktisadi Isletmesi
Tisma, Inc.
Tradewind Aviation, Llc
Trans Ocean Airways
Transportacion Aerea Del Mar De Cortes, S.A. De C.V.
Transporte Ejecutivo Aereo S.A. De C.V.
Travel Management Company, Llc
Tulpar Air Ltd.
Turistik Hava Tasimacilik A.S.
Turkish Airlines Inc.
Turkmen Havacilik Tasimacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.
Twc Aviation, Inc.
Ukraine International Airlines
Uls Havayollari Kargo Tasimacilik A.S.
Ultraair Llc
Unique Air
United Airlines, Inc
United Parcel Service Co.
United States Aviation Co.
Utair Aviation
Uzbekistan Airways
Vietnam Airlines Jsc
Vih Execujet Ltd.
Vim Airlines
Volga Dnepr Airlines Limited Liability Company
Volo Aviation, Llc
West Air Holdings Inc.
Western Air Charter, Inc.
Wind Rose Aviation Company
Wingtip Corporation
Wisconsin Aviation, Inc.
Worldwide Aircraft Services, Inc.
Worldwide Jet Charter, Inc.
Xiamen Airlines
Yanair Ltd
Yangtze River Express Airlines Co. Ltd.
Zest Aviation Pvt Ltd

TCO - Airline Applications still in Progress (15. June 2016)

1263343 Alberta Inc
650584 Alberta Inc.
Ab Aviation
Acass Europe S.R.L.
Acp Jet Charters Inc
Adex-Asg, Llc
Aereotcla, S.A. De C.V.
Aero Charter Airlines
Aero Salmon S.A. De C.V.
Aero Servicios Regiomontanos S.A.
Aerodiplomatic, Sa De Cv
Aerolane Lineas Aereas Nacionales Del Ecuador S.A.
Aerolineas Ejecutivas, S.A. De C.V.
Aerotaxis Metropolitanos, S.A. De C.V.
Aerotranscargo Srl
Aerovias Del Continente Americano
Afrijet Business Service
Air America Inc
Air Charter Service, Inc.
Air Company “Black Sea Airlines” Limited Liability Company
Air Company Sirius-Aero Ltd
Air Gato Enterprises, Inc.
Air India Limited
Air Madagascar
Air Nunavut Ltd
Air One Aviation Pvt. Ltd.
Air Zimbabwe (Private) Ltd.
Airasia X Berhad
Airborne Inc
Aircompany Meridian Ltd
Aircraft Services Group, Inc.
Airinter 1
Airline “Tca”Llc
Airmid Aviation Services Ltd.
Alfa Air
Alianza Glancelot, C.A.
Amc Airlines
Amerijet International Incorporated
Anguilla Air Services Ltd
Antonov Company
Ar Airways Pvt. Ltd.
Arabasco Arabian Aircraft
Arc En Ciel
Arik Air Limited
Assist Aviation
Aviator Aviation
Avior Airlines Ca
Ayit Aviation & Tourism Ltd.
Bahamasair Holdings Ltd
Balmoral Central Contracts
Bohlke International Airways Inc.
Boliviana De Aviacion, Boa
Brasil Vida Taxi Aereo
Ca “Classica Air” S.R.L.
Cairo Aviation
Cameroon Airlines Corporation
Caribbean Helicopters Limited
Cavok Air Limited Liability Company
Cfs Aviation Cc
Cham Wings Airlines
Chicago Jet Group
Cjsc Airline Iraero
Clairmont Holdings Ltd.
Compagnie Aerienne
Compania Aeriana “Sky Prim” Air S.R.L.
Corporate Jet
Cubana De Aviacion S.A.
Dumont Aircraft Charter, Llc
Eastway Aviation, L.L.C
Emerald Jets S.A.L
Empire San Marino Srl.
Eolo Plus S.A. De C.V.
Eon Aviation Pvt. Ltd.
Execujet Charter Service, Inc.
Executive Air Craft Ltd.
Executive Aircraft Services
Executive Sky Dispatch & Management
Falcon Aviation Services
Fast Air Ltd.
Federal State Unitary Air Enterpris
First Mandarin Business Aviation Co
Flight Options Llc
Flightpath Charter Airways Inc.
Fly Art
Fly One S.R.L.
Fortune Air (Pty) Ltd
Gary Jet Center, Inc.
Genel Havacilik A.S.
Genex Ltd.
Global Aviation Operations (Pty) Ltd
Golden West Airlines, Inc
Gryphon Airlines S.A. (Pty) Ltd
Gs Aviation
Helicopteros Dominicanos S.A.
Hff Travel Airways
Ics Aero Sm S.R.L.
Image Air Charter, Llc
India Flysafe Aviation Limited
Insel Air International B.V.
Inter Aviation Services (Pty) Limited
Inter Iles Air
International Jet Aviation Services, Inc.
Iran Air
Iran Aseman Airlines
Iraq Gate Company
Irka Havacilik Ve Turizm Ltd. Sti.
Island Airlines, Llc
Izhavia Public Stock Company
Jem Air Holdings Llc
Jet Aviation Flight Services Inc
Jetex Llc
Jetstream Aviation Llc
Jindal Steel & Power Ltd
Joint Stock Company “Air Company “Yakutia”
Joint Stock Company “Aircompany Grodno”
Joint Stock Company “Rusjet”
Journey Aviation, Llc
Kaan Havacilik Sanayi Ve Ticaret A.S.
Kabo Air Limited
Kalitta Charters Llc
Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter Ltd
Kenn Borek Air Ltd.
Kogalymavia Airlines Ltd
Lan Cargo S.A.
Lan Peru S.A.
Latam Airlines Group, S.A.
Linea Aerea Carguera De Colombia S.A.
Llc “Air Company Somon Air”
Llc Aircompany Zetavia
Lynden Air Cargo, Llc
M/S Ligare Aviation Ltd.
M/S Shaheen Air International Limited
Madagasikara Airways
Mahan Air
Mandarin Air Co., Ltd
Med-View Airline Nigeria Limited
Meregrass Inc
Metropolitan Aviation, Llc
Miami Air International, Inc.
Minsheng International Jet Co., Ltd
Montserrat Airways Ltd
Motor Sich Jsc
Mountain Air Cargo, Inc.
Mustique Airways Limited
Nasjet, Business Aviation
National Air Services (Nas)
National Helicopters Inc.
New World Aviation, Inc
Oklahoma Aviation Llc
Omni Sky S.A. De C.V.
Orange Air, Llc
Pal Aerospace Ltd.
Pan African Airways Limited
Pan Havacilik Ve Ticaret A.S (Panjet)
Pegasus Elite Aviation, Inc
Pentastar Aviation Charter Inc.
Phoenix Aviation Limited
Pinnacle Air Charter Llc
Pjsc Bukovyna Airlines
Pmb Aviation Company Shar Inc. Ltd.
Polaris Aviation Solutions, L.L.C.
Premier Aviation L.L.C.
Presidential Aviation, Llc
Priester Aviation, Llc
Privatair Saudi Arabia Ltd.
Private Corporation “International Joint- Stock Aviation Company “Urga”
Privilege Airways Pvt Ltd
Pro Airways, Llc
Pt. Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk
Public Joint-Stock Company “Pskovavia”
Public Jsc Kharkiv Airlines
Qeshm Air
Raymond Limited
Rec Havacilik Tasimacilik Tur. Ve Tic. A.S.
Rectrix Aviation, Inc
Reliance Air Charters Limited
Revesco Aviation Pty Ltd
Rsvp Jet , Inc
S.T.A (Services Et Transports Aeriens)
Saint Vincent Grenadines Air (1990)
Saturn Aviation, Llc
Scott Aviation, Llc
Seaborne Virgin Island Inc.
Seguranca Taxi Aereo Ltda.
Servicios Aereos Profesionales, S.A.
Servicios Integrales De Aviacion S.A. De C.V.
Shanghai Deer Jet Co, Ltd
Shearwater Air Ii, Llc
Short Hills Aviation Services  Inc.
Sichuan Airlines Co., Ltd
Silk Way Airlines Llc
Sky One Holdings, Llc
Sociedade De Taxi Aereo Weston Ltda
Southern Air Systems, Inc
Springfield Aircraft Charter And Sales Inc
Starjet, Inc
State Air Enterprise Ukraine
Sunset Aviation, Llc.
Superior Transportation Associates, Inc
Swift Flite (Pty) Ltd.
Syphax Airlines S.A.
Tandem Aero
Tarkim Ucak Bakim Onarim Ve
Taxi Aereo De Veracruz S.A. De C.V.
Texel Air W.L.L
Tianjin Airlines Co.,Ltd
Tjs San Marino Srl
Trans Anguilla Airways (2000) Ltd
Transaviaexport Airlines
Trans-Exec Air Service, Inc
Transporte Aereo Tecnico Ejecutivo S.A De C.V. (Tatesa)
True Aviation Charter Services Llc
Tunisair Express
Unitary Enterprise “Rubystar”
Utair Closed Joint Stock Company
Veteran Avia Llc
Volare Aviation Gsy Ltd.
Voyager Jet Center
Voyageur Airways Limited
Vrg Linhas Aereas S/A
Western Global Airlines Llc
Wheels Up Charter Llc
White Cloud Charter L.L.C.
Windward Express Airways N.V.
Windward Islands Airway International N.V. (Winair)
Wings Of Lebanon S.A.L.
Zorlu Air Havacilik A.S.

TCO - Airline Applications on Hold or Denied (15. June 2016)

Afriqiyah Airways
Ahs Air International Pvt Ltd
Air Company Scat, Jsc
Airline Comlux-Kz L.L.C.
Global Africa Aviation (Pvt) Ltd.
Iraqi Airways
Prime Aviation Jsc
Safi Airways



  • European Aviation Safety Agency –
  • European Aviation Safety Agency, Andreas Cordes, TCO, Istanbul 10.10.2013
  • National Business Aviation Association:
  • EASA TCO – Status Report  – last updated on : 15. June 2016

UPDATE: Banned Airline from operating within Europe, June 2016

The European Commission released on 16. June 2016  a new list of Airlines which are banned from operating within the European Union.

In total, 218 airlines have been listed, for which the embargo applies and 6 airlines that may operate only under restrictions  within the European Union air space.


**remark: All carriers from Liberia are banned, no  airlines were named**


According to the European Commision, the banned  air carriers  do not meet the required European aviation safety standards.

For assessment, the Directorate General for Mobility and Transport  -DG MOVE  use several sources and follow due process, as described in the Annex (Common Criteria) of the EU Regulation for the Air Safety List, Reg. 2111/2005.(follow the link)

List of banned Airlines by the European Commission

Air Service Comores
Air Koryo
Air Fast Congo
Air Kasai
Air Katanga
Air Tropiques
Dakota SPRL
Blue Airlines
Blue Sky
Busy Bee Congo
Congo Airways
Compagnie Africaine D’Aviation (Caa)
Doren Air Congo
Kin Avia
Korongo Airlines
Malu Aviation
Mango Airlines
Serve Air
Services Air
Swala Aviation
Transair Cargo Services
Will Airlift
Daallo Airlines
Ceiba Intercontinental
Cronos Airlines
Punto Azul
Tango Airways
Eritrean Airlines
Nasair Eritrea
Ariana Afghan Airlines
Kam Air
Pamir Airlines
Safi Airways
Iran Air
Iraqi Airways
Air Bishkek (Formerly Eastok Avia)
Air Kyrgyzstan
Air Manas
Avia Traffic Company
Central Asian Aviation Services (Caas)
Heli Sky
Manas Airways
S Group International (Formerly S Group Aviation)
Sky Bishkek
Sky Kg Airlines
Sky Way Air
Tez Jet
Valor Air
Afriqiyah Airways
Air Libya
Buraq Air
Ghadames Air Transport
Global Aviation And Services
Libyan Airlines
Petro Air
Air Gicango
Air Jet
Air Nave
Angola Air Services
Gira Globo
Taag Angola Airlines
Aero Benin
Africa Airways
Alafia Jet
Benin Golf Air
Benin Littoral Airways
Royal Air
Trans Air Benin
Aero Service
Canadian Airways Congo
Equaflight Services
Equatorial Congo Airlines S.A.
Mistral Aviation
Trans Air Congo
Afric Aviation
Air Tourist (Allegiance)
Nationale Et Regionale Transport (Nationale)
Nouvelle Air Affaires Gabon (Sn2Ag)
Tropical Air-Gabon
Sky Gabon
Solenta Aviation Gabon
Air Born Indonesia
Air Pacific Utama
Alfa Trans Dirgantata
Alda Trans Papua
Angkasa Super Services
Asi Pudjiastuti
Aviastar Mandiri
Dabi Air Nusantara
Deraya Air Taxi
Derazona Air Service
Dirgantara Air Service
Elang Lintas Indonesia
Elang Nusantara Air
Enggang Air Service
Ersa Eastern Aviation
Gatari Air Service
Heavy Lift
Indonesia Air Asia Extra
Indonesia Air Transport
Intan Angkasa Air Service
Jayawijaya Dirgantara
Johnlin Air Transport
Kal Star
Kartika Airlines
Komala Indonesia
Kura-Kura Aviation
Martabuana Abadion
Matthew Air Nusantara
Mimika Air
My Indo Airlines
Nam Air
National Utility Helicopter
Nusantara Air Charter
Pegasus Air Services
Pelita Air Service
Penerbangan Angkasa Semesta
Pura Wisata Baruna
Riau Airlines
Sayap Garuda Indah
Sriwijaya Air
Transnusa Aviation Mandiri
Transwisata Prima Aviation
Travel Express Aviation Service
Travira Utama
Trigana Air Service
Tri Mg Intra Asia Airlines
Surya Air
Weststar Aviation Indonesia
Wing Abadi Airlines
Air Almaty
Atma Airlines
Avia-Jaynar / Avia-Zhaynar
Bek Air
Beybars Aircompany
Burundayavia Airlines
East Wing
Euro-Asia Air
Fly Jet Kz
Irtysh Air
Jet Airlines
Kazair Jet
Kazairtrans Airline
Prime Aviation
Zhetysu Aircompany
Inter Airways LDA
CHC Helicopteros LDA
Amabassador LDA
Cfm – Trabalhos E Transportes Aéreos Lda
Coa – Coastal Aviation
Cpy – Cropsprayers
Cra – Cr Aviation Lda
Everett Aviation LDA
Eta – Empresa De Transportes Aéreos Lda
Hcp – Helicopteros Capital Lda
Inaer Aviation
Lam – Linhas Aereas De Moçambique S.A.
Makond, Lda
Mex – Moçambique Expresso, Sarl Mex
Ohi – Omni Helicopteros International Lda
Saf – Safari Air Lda
Sam – Solenta Aviation Mozambique, Sa
Air Dynasty Heli.S.
Air Kasthamandap
Buddha Air
Fishtail Air
Goma Air
Himalaya Airlines
Makalu Air
Manang Air Pvt Ltd
Mountain Helicopters
Muktinath Airlines
Nepal Airlines Corporation
Saurya Airlines
Shree Airlines
Simrik Air
Simrik Airlines
Sita Air
Tara Air
Yeti Airlines Domestic
Alfa Airlines
Bader Airlines
Blue Bird Aviation
Elidiner Aviation
Green Flag Aviation
Helejetic Air
Kata Air Transport
Kush Aviation
Nova Airlines
Sudan Airways
Sun Air Company
Tarco Airlines
Africa’S Connection
Stp Airways
Air Rum, Ltd
Destiny Air Services, Ltd
Heavylift Cargo
Orange Air Sierra Leone Ltd
Paramount Airlines, Ltd
Seven Four Eight Air Services Ltd
Teebah Airways
Blue Wing Airlines
Zambezi Airlines


The “common criteria” for consideration of an operating ban for safety reasons at Community level are mainly –

  1. Verified evidence of serious safety deficiencies (e.g. after a SAFA Ramp Inspections)
  2. Lack of ability and/or willingness of an air carrier to address safety deficiencies (e.g. no transparency or adequate and timely communication)
  3. Lack of ability and/or willingness of the authorities responsible for the oversight of an air carrier (e.g. after an ICAO USOAP Audit )

As the above graphic shows, the EU-ban-list involves mainly Asian (48%) and African Airlines (52%).


Significant Changes, comparing  to June 2016:




The results of the EU-Commission  fairly resemble to the audit results of the ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Programm (USOAP) –




International Low-Cost Airline Market Research

At the beginning of the 1980’s , the first Low Cost Airlines (LCC)  were initially ridiculed as a peripheral “exotic” business case phenomenon, especially by global network  or national flag carrier. No one from the established airlines sincerely believed that it can be a sustainable and successful business model, or even constitute a threat or an serious alternative to their  existing business model.

With  rising number  of  passengers, traffic capacities and sales revenues over the last 30 years, the low-cost airline business is a very successful concept and copied by many network carriers and newly founded airlines.

Worldwide market share in 2013 ,  FSC vs. LCC  (FSC = Full Service Airlines, LCC= Low Cost Airlines)


Evoltuion of market shares- focusing the European Market- (FSC vs. LCC) – comparing 2005  to 2013


Who are actually Low-Cost airlines – We identified 112 LCC Airlines

The most important question within our research. Approximately  176 Airlines worldwide claimes to operate as Low Cost Carrier, we examined them all: we have  set up different criteria and categorized every single airline – here are the results –LCC2_Web


Core LCC Airlines with the clearest sustainability, reliability, operating performance and economical growth


Together, the o.g.  Airlines offer more then 749.000 Seats per day and covering 4031 Destinations worldwide.

Operating Performance -high!




Passenger Load Factors – high!


Flight Safety Evaluation –  high!



Economic efficiency – high!

The LCC Carrier produces with less costs then the Regular Airlines.

That economic efficiency is reflected also on the price structure, the graphic below shows the average cost savings of LCC’s in comparison to the avearge fares of FSC’s


Passenger Satisfactory Survey – good!

According to  our passenger satisfactory survey (COSY) , more than  1. 400 Business Traveller’s evaluated 62 international airlines , including  LCC’s  – The gap between FSC’s and LCC’s is getting smaller.

Rating scale : 1 = poor —-> 5 = Excellent


 Forecast –

The differences of  business concept are becoming smaller,  a rapprochement between FSC and LCC is already taking place and will continue

lcc13_webWithin the  EU –  LCC’s traffic  increases continuously


  • Low Cost Airlines are no marginal phenomenon 
  • Core LCC’s form for almost 20 years a sustainable aviation business model
  • A rapprochement between FSC and LCC is already taking place and will continue.
  • Since 2004 till today, 52% of the newly founded LCCairlines have ceased operations
  • The average operating time of new founded LCC’s is in average 3.8 years
  • The core” LCC will continue to displace regional carriers and “niche Carrier”
  • LCC will continue to increase their market share
  • LCC ticket fares will rise continuously in the future
  • LCC‘s increase the pressure on the FSC‘s – services and price competition will increase
  • Modern IT Systems  and social media are used by the LCC‘s to keep battle for customers and market share



Our  research is based on  more then 9.000 detailled data fields


Order the complete Excel data table here!


Low Cost Business Model for Long-Haul Sectors

With rising numbers of passengers, traffic capacities and sales revenues over the last 35 years, the Low-Cost Airline business is a very successful concept for short and medium flights.

Would this Business concept work also for long haul flights? Low budget for long-haul flights is actually not a new idea, but the realization had many failed attempts.

First low-budget transatlantic flights commenced in the 1970s

The first “no-frill” flight was realized in the late seventies by Sir Freddie Laker with his “Skytrain”, a McDonnell Douglas DC10, scheduled between London Gatewick to New York. Although the attempt failed in 1983 mainly because of high operating costs, the attraction of this business has not lost its shine till today

Norwegian Air Shuttle and AirAsia X currently taking the challenge up again and fly long-distance flights across the Atlantic and Southeast Asia. The key question is, can the present Low-Cost Concept work over long haul sectors, and will they be more successful than their predecessors this time?

The main concept of Low-Cost model focuses on business and operational practices that drive down costs, includes operating at secondary airports, flying a single airplane type, increasing airplane utilization, relying on direct marketing and sales, single class concept, no frequent-flyer programs, and keeping manpower costs low.

Common Low-Cost Carrier Business Indicators

• A single class concept
• A single type of aircraft (commonly A320 , B737 families), reducing training and servicing costs
• A minimum set of optional equipment on the aircraft, further reducing costs of acquisition, maintenance and weight
• A simple fare scheme, such as charging one-way tickets half that of round-trips
• Flying to cheaper, less congested secondary airports
• Fast turnaround times
• Unreserved seating
• Simplified routes, point-to-point
• Luggage is not automatically transferred from one flight to another
• Generation of ancillary revenue from a variety of activities, such as à la carte features and commission-based products
• Direct sales of tickets, especially over the Internet
• Employees working in multiple roles
• A disinclination to handle Special Service passengers
• Fuel hedging programs
• Passengers paying charges for extras, such as hold luggage, online check in and priority boarding
• Avoiding using jetways
• Not supplying meals in a flight, but offering snacks, sandwiches and drinks instead to purchase on board
• No refunds or transfers to later flights in the event of missed flights

Comparing to Network Airlines, Low-Cost Carrier reduced in average unit cost by 35 percent to 45 percent, mainly by focusing cost cutting on those cost sectors, which are directly under their influence.

The two charts above show the distribution of total operating expenses by low-cost carriers and network airlines. The highest costs for Low-Cost Carrier are lying there, which they cannot control or take direct influence on.

The charts below demonstrate the different cost distribution by Network Airline and Low Cost Carrier

The Table below list the main operating cost factors that can be influenced by an airline:


The feasibility of Low-Cost for long-haul Sectors will depend mainly on the ability of the Airlines to control the operating expenses.

Adapting Low-Cost concept for potential cost savings

The current Low-Cost Concept has proven to be a very successful business, can it be applied for long-haul sector?

The potential savings can be located mainly in:

  1. Productivity: e.g. Aircraft type,Load factors,Fuel Consumption, Manpower
  2. Performance: e.g.Passengers traffic, Punctuality , Aircraft Utilization
  3. Operational: e.g. Airports, Air Traffic Management, Handling, Routes, Destinations

Increasing Load Factors and Seat Densities

Most gains will come from high seat densities. A comparison to European Network Airlines shows that they have also high Passenger Load factors and dense Eco cabins, here in average – (source: AirlineProfiler)

  • Transatlantic Routes, average

  • Europe to Asia, average

  • Within Europe, average Network

  • Within Europe, average Regional

  • Average Load Factor Worldwide, all Ranges


The tables below shows seat pitch, width and utilization of flight cabin by Network Airlines and Low Cost Carrier:

High Passenger Load Factors and dense Seat-Configurations on long haul sectors is already implemented, and will continue. The Eco-Seating or Single Class Concept (especially for domestic or regional routes) is increasing, business class seating is reduced and expanded by Premium Economy. The First Class Concept is strongly reduced and many airlines re-considering the concept or even cancel the service completely. This factor will not provide Low Cost Carriers a clear and present advantageous comparing to Network Airlines.

Airframe-, Aerodynamic improvements, reducing fuel consumption

Cost reduction through utilization of aerodynamic improved airframes and more economical engines, can provide a large contribution to cost reduction.

The Graphic below should illustrate the potential fuel savings predicted by Airframe- and Engine-Manufacturer (short and long term are disregarded).

Fuel represents approximately 50 percent of the total trip cost, for every carried tonne of fuel , 0,5 tonnes of fuel will be burnt to carry it. The Airframe- and Engine-Manufacturer predict for the short term Fuel burn savings of 2 percent to 4 percent, with new technologies in the long term, estimated fuel burn savings are predicted to be in the region of 10 percent to 12 percent.

Common twin Engine Jets used by current Low Cost Long Haul Operators, comparing Engine type and Fuel consumption:

The Boeing B787 is very fuel efficient airplane, therefore it is very likely that the Low-Cost Carrier will prefer to operate with this type of aircraft or similar (e.g. Airbus 350, Airbus A330 Neo, revamped B737 or A320 with extended range).



But to launch an attack on the long haul market, the Low-Cost Airline needs an adequate number of aircraft to be able to serve the required destinations with sufficient frequencies.

Boeing and Airbus are working flat out and have a long waiting list: within the next 8 years, the delivery of 657 Boeing B787 and 456 Airbus A350 is planned.
Also in planning are the revamped versions of narrow body aircraft like Boeing B737 and Airbus A320 as extended range versions, capable to cross the Atlantic, facing the same problem of a  long production line.

In summary, for long-haul flights the aircraft efficiency and a lean airline fleet will play an important role, but due to the long aircraft production periods it will take years for a Low Cost Airline to build up an adequate fleet. This time span will be used also by the Network Airlines to upgrade their airplanes, convert fleets and modify business concepts.

Passenger traffic, Punctuality and Aircraft Utilization

Punctuality and high aircraft utilization are a key factor to run a robust operation and to create a cost-effective business. On the short- and medium-haul, Low-Cost Carrier made it to their strongest feature.

On long Haul sectors, network carriers already achieving a significant performance, in average 13-15 hours aircraft utilization and over 80 percent punctual flights. The possibilities increasing flight rotations are exhausted, because long haul flights needs longer turn around times for boarding, Loading, servicing and fueling. Longer flying hours can violate crew duty time regulations and run up against time zones and airport curfews.

Flying to less congested secondary airports will not be so easy, because the necessary infrastructure such as runway length, fire brigades categories, maintenance facilities, certified handling agents, handling support and the necessary ground support equipment could be not available.
To operate on primary international airports will not gain any savings, exactly the contrary, monopoly like status means higher fees, lower crew utilization, additional overnight costs will increase expenses and reduce crew productivity.

In summary, high performance with low operational expenses can hardly be combined, the Low-Cost Carrier will presumably face the same expenses as the incumbent airlines, because this costs are beyond their influential range or unavoidable.

Generating new traffic or diversion from other transportation mode

As outlined above, high passenger load factors (>82%) are essential for long haul operations, the question raises now is how will the Low-Cost Airlines manage to achieve this high load factors.

With the low fares concept, it was assumed that the Low-Cost Carriers stimulated new traffic in addition to network and charter airlines. According to our previous Low-Cost Market Study, we assume that the Low Cost Concept did not generate new passenger traffic but more by taking market shares from incumbent airlines, in particular the displacement of the regional carrier and charter airlines.

Generating more air traffic by diversion from other transportation mode is a possible option for domestic and regional flights, but not for international long haul destinations (e.g.transatlantic flights).

The Low-Cost Carriers must therefore gain market shares directly from the network airlines, because they have no evasive options.

Attacking the last stronghold of network airlines

The Low-Cost Carrier will focus destinations with the strongest traffic. The illustrations and chart below show the potential areas in which very probably the preferred destinations will be located.

      • Passenger traffic, by countries
      • Gross domestic product (GDP), by countries
      • Distribution of top destinations (2014)
      • Probable Low Cost Carrier Long Haul Operating Areas and Destinations
      • Destinations within 8 hours flight time

Top destinations, by flight movements per year (2014)

Chicago 881.933
Atlanta 868.359
Dallas 679.820
Los Angeles 616.498
Beijing 581.950
Denver 570.614
Charlotte 545.178
Houston 496.187
London LHR 470.710
Frankfurt 469.026
Las Vegas 467.946
Paris 465.240
Amsterdam 438.296
San Francisco 431.633
Istanbul 422.174
Minneapolis 412.695
Mexico City 409.954
Miami 399.048
Phoenix 393.165
Hong Kong 390.795
New York JFK 387.076
Munich 376.678
Toronto 364.835
Boston 363.797
New York EWR 361.398
Dubai 357.339
Madrid 342.601
Singapore 341.386
Seattle 340.478
Sydney 327.554
Rome 312.118
Sao Paulo 304.586
Orlando 290.331
Incheon 290.043
Bangkok 289.568
Barcelona 283.850
Moscow 277.785
London LGW 254.543
Tokyo 229.581
Taipei 208.874

source: Airports Council International

Top destinations, by passengers traffic per year (2014)

Atlanta 96.178.899
Beijing 86.128.000
London LHR 73.371.106
Los Angeles 70.662.212
Dubai 70.475.636
Chicago 70.075.204
Paris 63.813.756
Dallas 63.522.823
Hong Kong 63.368.000
Frankfurt 59.571.802
Istanbul 56.954.790
Amsterdam 54.978.023
Singapore 54.093.070
Denver 53.472.514
New York JFK 48.811.289
San Francisco 47.155.100
Bangkok 46.423.352
Incheon 45.512.099
Charlotte 44.279.504
Las Vegas 42.869.517
Madrid 41.833.374
Houston 41.251.015
Miami 40.941.879
Munich 39.716.877
Sao Paulo 39.537.000
Rome 38.623.400
Sydney 38.496.000
Phoenix 38.380.745
London LGW 38.094.885
Barcelona 37.559.044
Seattle 37.497.941
Orlando 35.714.786
Tokyo 35.594.965
Minneapolis 35.152.460
Mexico City 34.255.739
Taipei 34.140.634
Moscow 33.039.531
Toronto 32.616.793
New York EWR 32.464.773
Boston 31.634.445

source: Airports Council International

Passenger traffic, by countries, source: AirlineProfiler

Gross domestic product (GDP), by countries, in USD, source: World Bank Group

Distribution of top destinations, source: AirlineProfiler, Routes- Network Module

The Low Cost traffic will take place mainly between North America and Europe. Probably between Southeast Asia and Europe it will start again, attempts in the past failed (Oasis Hong Kong Airlines ).

Probable Low Cost Carrier Long Haul Operating Areas and Destinations
Destinations within 8 hours flight time, between Europe-North Atlantic, Asia-Asia and Asia-Europe

Europe_flight_distances_web ASia_flight_distances_web


At the time, it is assumed that the optimal flight duration should not exceed 6 – 7 hours.
Apparently, Jetblue, Air Asia and Scoot are flying up to 6.5 hours, but it seems to be more an exception. As the illustration above shows, the average flight time between the probable destinations is above 8 hours. In the mean time, Norwegian already operates longer and established a foothold in the transatlantic market, because they have a fleet of seven brand B787 and manage to keep the airplanes 17-18 hours per day in the air.

Flight Safety Aspects

Flight safety is a continuous process of production, which means sufficient financial resources must always be available.
The EU regulation 1008/2008 sets the relation between sufficient financial resources and aviation safety. Lack of profitability have consequences, the aviation authorities have to intervene in order to prevent possible negative effects on air safety.
At present, the Low Cost Carrier have an excellent flight safety statistics and operate under a high safety standard level.
The implementation of the long-range concept will expose the airlines under tremendous competitive pressure, cost savings are then top priority.
The Accident of Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 has reignited a discussion about the safety of Low Cost carrier, especially after the regulatory licenses for the Surabaya-Singapore route as well as Medan-Palembang route have been suspended since January 2015 due to suspected licensing breaches.


A direct implementation of the current LCC concept on long-haul sectors is ineffective. All operational advantages of the short- and medium- haul sectors and resulting cost savings remain without the desired results.

Estimated cost savings potential, if current Low Cost Concept will adapted for Long-Haul Sectors

Aircraft type, Load factors, Fuel, Manpower
Passenger traffic, Aircraft Utilization
Airports, Navigation, Handling, Network

To gain market shares on the expense of the incumbent airlines will be very difficult and will not remain without countermeasures.
The only possibility to get a foothold in to the market will be very low air fares , but on the long term it cannot be maintained, as long-haul flights are very expensive operations.

Overall, the present concept for long haul low cost airlines seems not having any differentiation in the next years from the incumbent airlines, mainly because of the specificities of the long-distance operations.

A new concept is necessary, which take into account the specificities of the long-distance operations, combining emerging aviation technologies and information technology, demand and supply –driven, flexible networks and aircraft management, focused on customer comfort service providing a mix of premium and comfort classes.

IOSA and Enhanced IOSA – Industry Standard for Operational Safety Audit Procedure

Since 2003 the International Air Transport Association IATA has been awarding an IOSA Certificate for adherence to certain operational safety standards. The IOSA certification has been mandatory for all IATA-members since 2007. New applicants may nowadays only become IATA-members under the condition that they possess an IOSA-certificate. To this day, 402 air transport companies have such an industry standard certificate, 248 of them are IATA members.

The objectives of the IOSA Program: Improvement of operational safety procedures

The primary objective of this program is the standardization of the audit implementation/practices and the implementation of the IOSA “Standards and Recommended Practices “- (ISARPs) into the operational processes of an air transport company. The ISARPs have been developed in cooperation with the leading airlines world-wide and aviation authorities (among them FAA, CASA, JAA, Transport Canada) and are recognized as an international industrial standard for operational safety procedures. A further intended objective is the significant reduction of the number of (redundant) audits under the IATA members (“Audit-Sharing”).

Results of the IOSA Audit: IOSA Certification

After the conclusion of the audit procedure the air transport company will receive an IOSA-certificate, under the condition that all the results (Findings & Observations) from the audit are rectified within 12 months of the conclusion of the audit.

The IOSA certificate is valid for a period of 24 months and must be renewed before its expiry date.

The following areas form the main focus of an IOSA Audits:

  • Organization and Management of the airline
  • Flight Operation & Training (Pilots & Cabin Crew)
  • Flight Dispatch
  • Ground Handling
  • Technicals & Maintenance

The IOSA audit procedure is regulated in the IOSA Program Manual. The ISARPs are listed in the IOSA Standard Manual.

Implementation of an IOSA Audit-Procedure:

The IOSA-audits are exclusively carried out by certified  and economically independent Audit Organizations (AO).

Currently, they are 8 Audit Organizations worldwide licensed by IATA.

After the conclusion of an audit contract, the Audit Organizations will put a team of auditors together, mostly consisting of specialists in the individual areas mentioned above.

The auditing team will  conduct the audit usually with 5 auditors, including a “Lead-Auditor”.  The Lead Auditor is responsible for the conduction of the audit and compilation of the IOSA Audit Report (“IAR”- Final Report), which is decisive for the further course of the certification process.

During the audit, more than 900 ISARPs from all operational areas of an air transport company will be reviewed for their documentation (controlled documentation) and implementation. The auditors use mostly computer-controlled checklists and go through the ISARPs in the sequence defined in the ISM.

Should an airline’s standard not conform to the IOSA specifications, this will be recorded as a  “Finding”. The airline is granted a period of 12 months (starting from the date of the final audit meeting) to rectify all “Findings” and present the Corrective Action Record to the Audit Organization.

After the successful conclusion of the process the Audit Organization shall declare the IOSA Audit to be completed and recommend accepting the airline into the “IOSA Registry”.

The IOSA-audit is usually accomplished within 5 days and is free of charge for IATA members. 

Enhanced IOSA audit process: Add-on for IOSA Audit Procedure

The Enhanced IOSA procedure focuses  airline’s  self-auditing and quality assurance programs, to ensure continued conformity with  IOSA “Standards and Recommended Practices “- (ISARPs).

The additional procedure should increase efficiency to the evaluation of operational safety and security practices. 

What will change?

Audit Organizations (AO) will continue to conduct the on-site renewal audit every 24 months, and also focus on ensuring the IOSA standards are implemented by operators. 

Before renewal Audit, the AO will receive a conformance report as a record of the airline internal quality program and audit activities.

The airline is responsible  to ensure  the implementation of the ISARPs and shall demonstrate the reliability and integrity of their internal quality assurance system, throughout the 24 months registration period.

The Enhanced IOSA is for all IOSA renewal audits  as of  September 2015 mandatory,  until then, on a voluntary basis.

Marc Israel | AirlineProfiler

Business Traveler’s Satisfactory Report 2014

The objective of passenger surveys is , by  asking  a series of questions to gather information about what most traveler’s do or think about an airline, flight, service or airport lounge etc.

Subsequently,  the gathered information and data must be evaluated in a meaningfull way, so the right  conclusions and decisions can be done.

Sounds simple, but it is not: since we are dealing with a subjective perception and opinions, the  results are involved with particular  situations and  emotional feelings, which sometimes complicates the correct interpretation.

This small  example is to illustrate  how difficult it will be to interpret this passengers score  objective and meaningful.



Is there an optimal concept or solution  to achieve  the above mentioned  objective?

 There are two common ways of implementation and interpretation  of passenger survey:

  • by contracted professional audits, conducted by trained auditors
  • by asking traveller’s feedback and opinion directly

According to recent media reports, the solution  to conduct audits with so called “audit experts” seems not to be an optimal solution, see e.g. decision of Etihad or UK’s Advertising Standards Authority Ltd , adjudication on Skytrax Research.

So, what remains is the old fashioned way: ask your passengers by yourself !

And that is exactley what our clients are doing.

Our clients, mostly travel departments  and travel managers of large european corporations uses the AirlineProfiler to assess Airlines. The survey module provides a good supplement to complete the entirely picture of an airline by including the  perspective of passengers.

The survey modul COSY  is  a free of charge additional service to our AirlineProfiler clients and subscribers.


Some Details about our  Survey Modul:

  • Delays statistics, per airline and airport
  • Satisfaction with the airport / check-in / gate area
  • Satisfaction on board + Service
  • Misshandled luggage statistics
  • Misconnecting flights
  • Worldwide codeshare and wet lease analysis
  • The survey was designed specifically for mobile devices and smartphones.
  • Survey is completely anonymous.

The survey consists of 10 questions and 4 additional  disclosures per flight. The application is available on all platforms, and especially suitable for smartphones (85% of the passengers own a smartphone). Also here, the customer  needs to enter only the flight number.

Duartion per survey  approx.  20-30 seconds per flight.

Weighting factors

In order to obtain  comparable results  as possible, each  rating score  passes through five weighting factors –

















According to corporate standards means, to take the expectations and standards into  account of the  company which conducts the survey


Comparability of Airlines

Airlines are not the same, actually each Airline is  very unique, therefore also the survey results.

To  be able to compare the score of an airline with the results of other airlines it is necessary to determine the comparability. Screening the basic structure of each airline and seeking for similarities  helps us to examine the comparability, e.g

• Cost structure, revenue structure and productivity
• Fleet composition.
• Traffic System markets: market dominance, market share and competitive position
• Flight Safety, Quality Image, on-board service, timeliness.
• Distribution channels and pricing policies,
• General company profile, business structure

The more  similarities means  more comparability with other airlines. This is also taken into account in the overall assessment of the survey together with the weighting factors. For more information, please refer to  us with the subject  “Twinning Factors – Airline Profiler”.


Small review on results

We selected the period between March- June 2014 , 2013 business travelers (from the pharmaceutical and chemical sector) participated , 1330 valid surveys received, with more then 18.600 answered questions. In total 62 Airlines have been evaluated , 99 %   IATA Members.




Scale –





Composition of the score –

Passenger SCORE for each issue = min 1 point  —-> max. 5 points per question

+ Weighting factor 1

+ Weighting factor 2

+ Weighting factor 3

+ Weighting factor 4

+ Weighting factor 5

+ Overall impression of the flight

= Score



The highest score of 5 points overall means the airline fulfilled  passengers expectations with 100%  – here  a short review of degree of fulfillment , sorted by airline, expressed in % –


Airline received  more than  600 evaluated answered questions  (some airlines narrowly missed the above mentioned requirement and would have raised the average).

Busines Class, longhaul flights , schedule carrier

Twinning factor: > 60 %

Questions treated :

  • Passenger perceived Safety
  • Service & Friendliness on Bord
  • Cabin & Facilities Cleanliness
  • Seat & Cabin Comfort
  • Catering
  • Overall Impression of Journey


The business traveler’s testified the airlines in average 75 % fulfillment, i.e. high score. Also in questions of punctuality (arrival) , luggage handling  and connecting flights, the airlines and airports presented a very professional operational performance.  But we have to bear in mind , we still deal with subjective assessment and  very   short snapshots, i.e. to obtain a better and more comprehensive picture, we have to observe longer and get more reviews.





delay connex



Score sorted by Alliances




Business class, longhaul flights, sorted by regions












Important  key points for business travelers






DATA Sheet for evaluation – CSV or Excel format – Excerpt



The modul provides for each client and survey a data sheet in CSV format , automatically.

For more information, questions or  and data, please contact research[at]

Accident overview Bombardier DHC-8-400 and ATR-72

Our Network Partner JACDEC  – Experts for Accident evaluation – published a new accident  comparison between DHC-800 and ATR-72.

This short review presents an accident overview of the Last 15 Years (1999-2013) , also the affected airlines and list all airlines which operates with ATR-72  and DHC-8-400 .

The accident causes are still being analyzed and will be  published  soon.

jacdec atr dash


List of involved airlines

Affected airlines


Hull Losses Distribution Map

ATR DASHlegende

Actual Operators


Boeing 787 – “Dreamliner” – safe or not safe, that is the question

There is no end to the bad news for the US aircraft manufacturer Boeing, it seems therefore likely that the B787 breakdown series is associated with flight safety.

Is the B787 aircraft safe?

We examined this question as outlined below.

To get started, we need first to understand, what  “flight safety” means.

Definition of flight safety

There is no universal and officially determined definition of the concept of “flight safety”. It is rather a combination of several required conditions so that a flight reaches its destination with a maximum of safety and a minimum risk of accidents, hence, an interaction between rules, environmental influences and technical and human factors.

Flight safety is the desired optimum state in which flight operations are executed in circumstances that can be controlled as sustainably as possible with minimal (tolerable) risk.

Presupposing that there is a sufficiently large database, however, specific safety characteristics can be determined for certain airlines, types of aircraft or regions of the world.

However, reliable statements with respect to flight safety can be made only in a longer term analysis and with a greatest possible coverage of accident data.

To answer the above question it must be checked if there are already sufficient reliable statements, or not, which allow stating negative safety characteristics.

Appraisal of airworthiness

The legislator requires sustainable and verifiable airworthiness for all aircrafts.
Airworthiness is a basic precondition for the desired optimum state. If it does not exist, flight safety is not given, if it is restored, the optimum state can be reached again.

The problems with B787 were caused by individual aircraft components, which were submitted to an airworthiness procedure; they have been solved with technical directives being passed to manufacturers and airlines. In other words, the airworthiness is restored.

The Federal Aviation Administration, briefly FAA, is responsible for these directives and the European Aviation Safety Agency EASA for Europe.

In the opinion of the competent authorities, there are no further concerns regarding the flight safety of B787.

Let’s proceed and check the Airlines behavior: do they share the statements of the authorities and manufacturer?

The order list could provide a hint

Deliveries of B787

Till today, 84 aircrafts of type B787 have been delivered to 14 airlines:

  • AeroMexico
  • Air India
  • ANA
  • British Airways
  • China Southern AL
  • Ethiopian Airlines
  • Hainan Airlines
  • JAL
  • LAN Airlines
  • LOT Polish Airlines
  • Norwegian Long Haul
  • Qatar Airways
  • Thomson Airways
  • United Airlines


Orders of B787

Overall, 58 airlines have ordered 896 aircrafts up to 2020:


Current route plan of B787 (schedule valid until March 2014)

The traffic performance of the Boeing 787 shows a constant growing

Overview of daily flights per country/region

Boeing 787 is a long-haul aircraft currently serving 98 destinations in 46 countries.
The B787 aircraft flies an estimated 310 million kilometers per year, which corresponds to the flight performance of a mid-size scheduled airline (e.g. Alaska Airways).

Despite the breakdown series, the customers still place their trust in “Dreamliner”, which is reflected in the high order quantities and the operational traffic.

Let’s get a closer view into the breakdownseries:

B787 – breakdown series: fundamental safety problems?

Occurrences associated with the operation of an aircraft are classified into three categories:
1.    Accident (heaviest category)
2.    Serious incident (medium category)
3.    Incident (weakest category)

Since the B787 aircraft was put into service, the incidents can be graded into two occurrences:
•    Fires or smoke in the passenger compartment or in the cargo compartment
•    System failures which could have caused difficulties controlling the aircraft

The above occurrences fall in the category “serious incidents when operating an aircraft“ and entail an investigation by the Aviation Safety Authority.
The results of these investigations revealed that several airworthiness directives were passed to manufacturers and the airline.
The directives are immediately valid and binding. Once they have been implemented, the aircrafts are again considered as airworthy and thus safe for air traffic.
According to the competent authorities, there are no further concerns regarding the flight safety of B787.


Comparison with new developments of other model aircrafts

We asked ourselves if the B787 breakdown series is particularly striking in comparison with other newly developed models.
The best comparable aircraft here would be Airbus A350, which has not been delivered yet.
So we must make comparisons with other models showing certain similarities to B787: flight distance, capacities or new developments (e.g. A380)

  • Boeing 777
  • Boeing 767
  • Airbus 380
  • Airbus 340
  • Airbus 330

a. How many aircrafts have been produced per model so far?*

*Note: Year-to-date


b. Annual production figures, per model*

* Period – commissioning +10 years


c. All occurrences per model till today


d. All occurrences in the first 3 years of operation

e. All incidents (cumulated: accidents, serious incidents and incidents),  10-year period, broken down by manufacturer/ aircraft type

(Note: B787 has been in service for 3 years only!)




Reliable statements with regard to flight safety can be made only in a longer term analysis and with a greatest possible coverage of accident data. Given that Boeing 787 has been in regular service only for three years, these statements cannot yet be made at present.
Evidence of lasting operational safety remains to be provided.

It is noticeable that B787-8 has to deal with systemic ‘teething problems‘, however, this is due to the fact that B787 is a new development on the basis of a modified manufacturing process:
•    built with composites only
•    outsourcing of many components, which had thwarted the previous development, to foreign companies

There is still no comparable aircraft type being manufactured according to the same or similar method of production.

According to the competent authorities, there are no further concerns regarding the flight safety of B787.

Despite the breakdown series, the customers still place their trust in “Dreamliner”, which is reflected in the high order quantities.

When evidence of lasting operational safety has been provided, we consider B787 to be a very successful aircraft.



1. As regards planning and concept, the B787 aircraft is certainly an excellent aircraft to reduce costs in the long-haul sector, thus increasing revenues. 
By contrast, there is the delicate fact that the supervisory authority FAA had left the testing and certification of the important battery systems to the manufacturer Boeing, meaning that Boeing is/was controlled by Boeing.

2. No verifiable evidence has been provided yet of how to repair damaged fuselage components, for example under mechanical load (e.g. Jetway collision) and thermal load (fire, lightning), if there are no more riveted joints that can be disconnected. In this case, entire fuselage sections (so-called “tons”) would rather have to be exchanged.
Boeing has left this question open so far.



  • Marc Israel, Tarmac Aviation GmbH –
  • Jan-Arwed Richter ,  JACDEC.DE

October 2013

©2013 | Tarmac Aviation GmbH | ©2013 JACDEC.DE | All Rights Reserved | Copyright Photos/Images/Illustrations/Grafics © 2013 Tarmac Aviation GmbH Germany, © 2013 iStockphoto LP

Excerpts – Country Safety Oversight

Self explaining charts, no comments
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