Foreign airlines’ surveillance is an ICAO Standard and already implemented for many years in several other countries.
Europe centralises the process to authorise third-country operators performing commercial air transport operations into the EU, issuing a single safety authorisation by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) under the new Implementing Rule (Part-TCO) as of 26 May 2014.
Third Country Operator (TCO) refers to non-European aircraft operators conducting commercial air transport flights (CAT) into the EU. This includes operators which are wet leased-in by, or code-sharing with an EU operator when commercial flights to any territory subject to the provisions of the Treaty of the European Union are performed.
The TCO requirements do not apply to non-commercial operations and there are also provisions to allow for ‘one-off’ or short-notice non-scheduled flights by commercial air transport operators that do not hold a TCO authorisation. Operating permits (relating to commercial traffic rights) may also be required by individual member states.
The purpose of the authorisation is to confirm that the operator meets international operational and safety standards, in compliance with ICAO Annex 6. The authorisation issued by EASA will become a prerequisite for EU Member States to grant operating permits/traffic rights.
Authorisations issued under Part-TCO carries no expiration date, but becomes invalid when not been used for a period of 24 months. The Authorisation will not be subject to fees.
Any third-country operator who intends to perform commercial air transport (CAT) operations into, within or out of any of the following territories requires an authorisation issued by the Agency under Part-TCO:
The European approach to the authorisation of third country operators will essentially consist of a validation of the Air Operator Certificate (AOC) issued to a foreign air operator by its State’s competent aviation authority. EASA will assign the categories with a strong emphasis on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Universal Safety Oversight Audit Program (click here: USOAP) performance of the operator.
State of the Operator:
• ICAO USOAP reports (lack of implementation)
• ICAO SSC (significant safety concern)
• EU Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft (SAFA) results (aggregated on state of the operator level)
• Consultations pursuant to Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No. 473/2006
• Measures imposed by a member state in accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No. 2111/2005
• Accident data (aggregated on state of the operator level)
• FAA IASA state category
• Accident history
• EU SAFA ratio (if available)
• Size, nature and complexity of the operations
• Adherence to industry standards
EASA will validate the foreign AOC by issuing an EASA TCO Authorisation document accompanied by Technical Specifications, setting out the scope of operations authorised in the EU.
Part-TCO is since 26. May 2014 in force. All commercial operators who traveled to Europe had to submit their applications until 26.November 2014. After this date, a 24-month administrative processing period started, in which operators should continue applying to individual states for operating admittance. The transition period of PART TCO will be finalized on 26 November 2016.
Once the TCO program is in place, new operators traveling to Europe will be required to submit at TCO application 30 days prior to their trip.
The TCO authorisation process will consist of four phases:
Phase 2: Questionnaire -Technical Assessment-Validation of an AOC. Appliance of ICAO standards – operation of aircraft -Annex 6
Phase 3: Authorisation Decision – Authorisation Letter-Specifications-Publication. The authorisation is accompanied by a SPECIFICATION associated to the TCO Authorisation, which contains details of the authorised operation.
Phase 4: Continuous Monitoring – Periodic re-assessment – ad-hoc investigation – enforcement. The safety performance of the operator is continuously monitored. A dedicated web-interface will support all communications on-line between EASA and the applicant. The operator is responsible to keep relevant information current at all times via the web-based TCO platform.
EASA will employ a risk-based model to determine the appropriate assessment methodology to be applied in each authorisation process.
The issuance of an authorisation will be subject to EASA’s level of confidence in the foreign AOC, as determined by the competence of its holder to discharge its responsibilities and the safety oversight capability of the certifying State.
Operators will be grouped into three different categories (A,B,C) that correspond to EASA’s level of confidence (High, Medium, Low) into the state of the operator and the operator itself.
A pre-defined set of credible internal and external data sources will be continuously analysed to keep the model up-to-date. The lower EASA’s certainty about the applicant’s reliability or the less credible data available for an applicant operator or the State of the Operator, the higher will be the assessment category which corresponds to the level of scrutiny applied during the assessment.
A TCO operator will need to prove compliance with international standards as stipulated in ICAO Annex 6, with other words, an EASA-TCO is a validation of an existing AOC, issued by an ICAO contracting State. There are no additional requirements.
The European Safety List mechanism pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005 is governed by the European Commission in Brussels.
Remark: List is not complete.
EASA and the European Commission ensure that both instruments are closely coordinated, involving also the European Member States. Operators subject to a ban or operating restriction in the EU Safety List are eligible to apply with EASA for an assessment under Part-TCO.
The European Commission continues to be in charge of of the EU “black list” (Reg EU 2111/2005).
The EASA TCO authorisation scheme follows a „white list“ principle and complements the EU safety list. Operators subject to an EU- operating-ban may apply for a TCO Authorisation. Depending on the circumstances the case will be coordinated with the European Commission.
Holding a TCO authorisation alone is not sufficient in complying with the code-share requirements of Regulation (EU) No 965/2012. The code-share provisions apply in addition to the requirements of Part-TCO because they involve EU rules as well as ICAO standards.
A third country operator code-sharing with an EU carrier will be subject to the requirements of both and will be obliged to undergo comprehensive audits for the initial verification of compliance and continuous compliance with the applicable ICAO Standards.
EASA TCO is a safety-related part of foreign operator assessment and a mandatory prerequisite condition for granting operating permits/traffic rights within the European Union.
Operating permits remain an area of national responsibility and will continue to be issued by Member States. Therefore, TCO Operators must comply with the Standardised European Rules of the Air (SERA) and Airspace Usage Requirements (AUR). The State Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), the Single European Sky (SES) implementing rules and in particular the Interoperability rules also apply.
EASA has not yet complete all applications , here a short overview –
In Total 643 Airlines applied for a TCO-Certification. EASA has approved 403 Airline applications and 231 are still in progress. 9 Applications were rejected or on hold, due to an existing EU-Ban.
Applications progress by Region
Applications progress by Countries
|2106701 Ontario, Inc.|
|Abx Air, Inc.|
|Ace Aviation Services Corporation|
|Act Havayollari A.S.|
|Ado Havacilik A.S.|
|Advanced Air Management, Inc.|
|Aero Jet Services, Llc|
|Aero Personal, S.A. De C.V.|
|Aerolineas Argentinas S.A.|
|Aeronexus Corporate (Pty) Ltd|
|Aerovias De Mexico S.A. De C.V.|
|Aerovics, S.A. De C.V.|
|Air Arabia Egypt|
|Air Arabia Jordan|
|Air Arabia Maroc|
|Air Astana Jsc|
|Air Borinquen, Inc.|
|Air Canada Rouge Lp As Represented
By Its General Partner Air Canada Rouge General Partner Inc.
|Air China Cargo Company Limited|
|Air China Ltd|
|Air Company “Aviacon Zitotrans”|
|Air Mauritius Ltd.|
|Air Namibia (Pty) Ltd|
|Air New Zealand Ltd|
|Air Ocean Maroc|
|Air Paradise, Inc.|
|Air Rutter Int. Llc|
|Air Seychelles Ltd.|
|Air Transat A.T. Inc.|
|Air Transport International, Inc.|
|Air Trek, Inc.|
|Airbridgecargo Airlines Limited Liability Company|
|Aircompany “Atlasjet Ukraine” L.L.C|
|Airenka Hava Tasimaciligi|
|Airmed International, Llc|
|Airways Montenegro D.O.O.|
|Aitheras Aviation Group Llc|
|Ak Havacilik Ve Ulastirma Hizmetler|
|Akcionarsko Drustvo Za Vazdusni Saobracaj Saobracaj Air Serbia Beograd|
|Al Jaber Aviation|
|Alia – The Royal Jordanian Airlines|
|All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd.|
|Allpoints Jet Co., Ltd|
|Almasria Universal Airlines|
|American Airlines, Inc.|
|Antair, S.A. De C.V.|
|Arkasair Havacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Arkia Israeli Airlines Ltd|
|Arrow Aviation Ltd|
|Ashley Aviation Ltd.|
|Asiana Airlines, Inc.|
|Atlas Air Inc.|
|Atlasjet Havacilik As|
|Atp Havacilik Ticaret A.S.|
|Aviation Bridge Ltd.|
|Aviation Consultants Inc.|
|Aviation Horizons, Ltd|
|Awesome Flight Services (Pty) Ltd|
|Azul Linhas Aereas Brasileiras S.A.|
|Azur Air Limited Liability Company|
|Azur Air Ukraine Airlines, Llc|
|Bajaj Aviation Pvt. Ltd.|
|Beijing Airlines Co., Ltd.|
|Beijing Capital Airlines Co., Ltd (Car121)|
|Belavia – Belarusian Airlines|
|Biman Bangladesh Airlines Limited|
|Bon Air Havacilik Tic. Ve San. A.S.|
|Borajet Havacilik Tasimacilik Ucak Bakim Onarim Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Boydak Havacilik Tasimacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Burhanettin Kaya Havacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Business Jet Services, Ltd.|
|Business Jet Travel Airline” Ltd|
|C.A.L. – Cargo Air Lines Ltd.|
|Cape Clear, Llc|
|Cargojet Airways Ltd.|
|Caribbean Heli-Jets, Inc.|
|Caris Air Services Llc|
|Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd.|
|Cb Air Taxi Aereo Ltda.|
|Cengiz Havacilik A.S.|
|Centaero Aviation Ltd.|
|Chantilly Air, Inc.|
|Chartright Air Inc.|
|China Airlines Ltd.|
|China Cargo Airlines Ltd.|
|China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited|
|China Eastern Airlines Executive Air|
|China Eastern Yunnan Airlines Co., Ltd.|
|China Hainan Airlines Co.Ltd|
|China Southern Airlines Company Limited|
|Ciner Hava Taimaciligi A.S.|
|Clay Lacy Aviation, Inc.|
|Comlux Aruba N.V.|
|Constellation Aviation Services Llc|
|Corporate Air, Llc.|
|Corporate Eagle Management Services, Inc.|
|Corporate Flight Alternatives, Inc.|
|Corporate Flight, Inc|
|Cove Partners, Llc|
|Critical Care Medflight, Inc.|
|Ctp Aviation, Llc|
|Cumacor 149 (Pty) Ltd|
|Dart Limited Trust Distribution|
|Davinci Jets Llc|
|Dc Aviation Al Futtaim Llc|
|Deer Jet (Beijing) Co., Ltd.|
|Delta Air Lines, Inc.|
|Delta Private Jets Inc.|
|Dhl Aviation Eemea B.S.C (C)|
|Doysa Vip Havacilik A.S.|
|Eagle Express Doo Beograd|
|El Al Israel Airlines Ltd|
|Elite Air, Inc|
|Emair Havacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Empire Aviation Group|
|Ethiopian Airlines Enterprise|
|Etihad Airways P.J.S.C|
|Eva Airways Corporation|
|Eva Airways Corporation|
|Execujet Australia Pty. Limited|
|Execujet Aviation (Pty) Ltd|
|Execujet Middle East|
|Execujet New Zealand Limited|
|Executive Air Charter Of Boca Raton, Inc.|
|Executive Fliteways, Inc.|
|Executive Jet Management, Inc.|
|Federal Express Corporation|
|Fiba Air Hava Tasimacilik Ve Hizmetleri A.S.|
|Fl Air Corp.|
|Fly By Wire International Pvt. Ltd.|
|Fox Flight Inc.|
|G C Aviation, Inc.|
|Galaxy Airways Inc.|
|Gama Aviation Llc|
|Gandel Investments Pty Ltd|
|Gazpromavia Aviation Company Limited|
|General Aviation Flying Services Inc|
|Georgian Airways Ltd.|
|Global Aviation, Inc.|
|Global S Aviation|
|Global Taxi Aereo Ltda|
|Gulf Air B.S.C. (C)|
|Gunes Ekspres Havacilik (Sun Express)|
|Heli Air Monaco|
|Helistar Taxi Aereo, Escola De Pilotagem E Assessoria Aeronautica S.A.|
|Hong Kong Airlines Corporate Jet Management Limited|
|Hurkus Havayolu Tasimacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|I.M.P. Group Limited|
|Ibex Air Charter S.A.R.L|
|Icar Air D.O.O.|
|Ihy Izmir Havayollari A.S.|
|Image Air Charter Ltd|
|Interlaken Capital Aviation Service Inc.|
|Intreprinderea De Stat Compania Aeriana “Air Moldova”|
|Israir Airlines & Tourism Ltd.|
|Japan Airlines Company, Ltd.|
|Jet Airways (India) Ltd.|
|Jet Charter Inc.|
|Jet Linx Aviation Llc|
|Jet Logistics Inc.|
|Jet Select, Llc|
|Jetgo Australia Holdings Pty Ltd|
|Joint Stock Company “Air Management Group”|
|Joint Stock Company “Jet Air Group”|
|Joint Stock Company “Red Wings”|
|Joint Stock Company “Royal Flight Airlines”|
|Joint Stock Company “The 224-Th Flight Unit State Airlines”|
|Joint-Stock Company “Ural Airlines”|
|Js Aviation Company “Rusline”|
|Jsc “Airline “Taimyr”|
|Jsc Yamal Airlines|
|Kalitta Air, Llc|
|Karnavati Aviation Pvt. Ltd.|
|Kenya Airways Limited|
|Key Air, Llc|
|Keystone Aviation, Llc|
|Kingfisher Air Services / Air Safari, Inc.|
|Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd.|
|Korfez Havacilik Turizm Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Kreos Aviation Inc|
|Kugu Havacilik Ve Turizm A.S.|
|L.J. Associates, Inc.|
|Liat (1974) Limited|
|Lider Taxi Aereo S/A ? Air Brasil|
|Limak Havacilik Iletisim Egitim Ticaret A.S.|
|Limited Liability Company “Aviaservis”|
|Limited Liability Company “Maximus Airlines”|
|Limited Liability Company “Ukrainian Airlines Company “Aerostar”|
|Limited Liability Company ‘Globus’|
|Linhas Aereas De Angola, Ep|
|Llc “Nord Wind”|
|Lloyd Aviation Jet Charter Pty. Ltd.|
|London Air Services Limited|
|Longtail Aviation International Limited|
|Lyon Aviation, Inc.|
|M&N Equipment, Llc|
|M/S Pakistan International Airlines Corporation Limited|
|Madagascar Trans Air|
|Maine Aviation Aircraft Charter, Llc|
|Malaysia Airlines Berhad|
|Marcplan Charter Pty. Ltd.|
|Marmara Sinai Ve Ticari Yatirimlar A.S.|
|Maxem Aviation Pty Ltd|
|Mayo Aviation, Inc.|
|Mega Global Air Services (Maldives) Pvt Ltd|
|Meridian Air Company|
|Miat Mongolian Airlines|
|Mid East Jet Charters|
|Middle East Airlines Air Liban Mea|
|Midwest Aero Club, Llc|
|Midwest Jet Management, Llc|
|Milta Turizm Isletmeleri A.S.|
|Mn Airlines, Llc|
|Mng Havayollari Ve Tasimacilik A.S.|
|Mng Jet Havacilik A.S.|
|Montenegro Airlines A.D.|
|Morningstar Partners Ltd|
|Morro Vermelho Taxi Aereo Ltda|
|Mountain Aviation, Inc|
|National Air Cargo Group, Inc.|
|National Air Carrier: “Azerbaijan Airlines” Cjsc|
|Neo Taxi Aereo Ltda|
|Netjets Aviation, Inc|
|Nippon Cargo Airlines Co.,Ltd|
|North American Air Charter, Inc.|
|Northeastern Aviation Corp.|
|Northern Illinois Flight Center, Inc.|
|Northern Jet Management, Inc.|
|Nurol Havacilik A.S.|
|Oak Air, Ltd|
|Oint Stock Company Nordavia-Regional Airlines|
|Ojsc “Saratov Airlines”|
|Oman Air (S.A.O.C.)|
|Omni Air International, Inc|
|Omni Air Transport, Llc|
|Omsan Havacilik A.S.|
|Onur Air Tasimacilik A.S.|
|Ozek Hava Taksi Isletmeciligi Ve Tic. A.S.|
|Pacific Flight Services Pty Ltd|
|Palmali Hava Tasimaciligi As|
|Paradigm Jet Management|
|Pazchem (Holdings) Ltd.|
|Pegasus Hava Tasimaciligi A.S.|
|Petroleum Air Services|
|Philippine Airlines, Inc.|
|Phoenix Air Group, Inc|
|Pioneer Business Services, Llc|
|Pjsc Aeroflot Russian Airlines|
|Pobeda Airlines Limited Liability Company|
|Polar Air Cargo, Inc|
|Poonawalla Aviation Pvt. Ltd.|
|Port Sivil Havacilik A.S.|
|Prescott Support Co.|
|Prime Jet, Llc|
|Professional Flight Transport, Inc.|
|Projet Aviation, Llc|
|Publi Servicios Aereos, S.A. De C.V|
|Public Joint Stock Company “Aviation Company Dniproavia|
|Public Joint Stock Company Siberia Airlines|
|Qantas Airways Limited|
|Qatar Airways Company (Q.C.S.C.)|
|Red Star Havacilik Hiz. A.S.|
|Reliance Commercial Dealers Limited|
|Reliant Air Charter, Inc.|
|Republic Airline Inc|
|Richmor Aviation, Inc.|
|Rossiya Airlines, Joint Stock Company|
|Rotana Jet Aviation|
|Royal Air Maroc|
|Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn. Bhd.|
|Royal Wings Co.|
|Rr Investments, Inc|
|Sarp Havacilik Lojistik Turizm Sanayi Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Saudi Arabian Airlines Corporation|
|Sc Aviation Inc.|
|Servicios Aereos Regiomontanos, S.A.|
|Setair Hava Tasimaciligi Ve Hizmetleri A.S.|
|Severstal Aircompany Ltd|
|Silk Way Business Aviation Llc|
|Silk Way West Airlines Llc|
|Singapore Airlines Cargo Pte Ltd|
|Singapore Airlines Limited|
|Sinojet (Beijing) Co., Ltd|
|Sky Lease I, Inc.|
|Sky Line Ulasim Ticaret A.S.|
|Sky Partners, Inc.|
|Skybird Aviation, Inc.|
|Skyservice Business Aviation Inc.|
|South African Airways Pty Ltd|
|Southern Air, Inc.|
|Srilankan Airlines Limited|
|Star Aviation Spa|
|Sterling Aviation, Llc|
|Sun Air Jets, Llc|
|Sunwest Aviation Ltd.|
|Sunwing Airlines Inc.|
|Super Air Hava Tasimaciligi A.S.|
|Surinaamse Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V.|
|Tacv, S.A. – Transportes Aereos De Cabo Verde|
|Tag Aviation Asia Ltd.|
|Tag Aviation Middle East Wll|
|Tahe Havacilik Danismanlik Yatirim Taahhut Ticaret Ltd.Sti|
|Tailwind Havayollari A.S.|
|Taj Air Ltd.|
|Talon Air Inc|
|Tam Linhas Aereas S.A.|
|Tamir Airways Ltd.|
|Tango Air, Inc.|
|Tav Havacilik A.S.|
|Thai Airways International Public Company Limited|
|The Flightstar Corporation|
|The Whitewind Company|
|Thk Gokcen Havacilik Iktisadi Isletmesi|
|Tradewind Aviation, Llc|
|Trans Ocean Airways|
|Transportacion Aerea Del Mar De Cortes, S.A. De C.V.|
|Transporte Ejecutivo Aereo S.A. De C.V.|
|Travel Management Company, Llc|
|Tulpar Air Ltd.|
|Turistik Hava Tasimacilik A.S.|
|Turkish Airlines Inc.|
|Turkmen Havacilik Tasimacilik Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Twc Aviation, Inc.|
|Ukraine International Airlines|
|Uls Havayollari Kargo Tasimacilik A.S.|
|United Airlines, Inc|
|United Parcel Service Co.|
|United States Aviation Co.|
|Vietnam Airlines Jsc|
|Vih Execujet Ltd.|
|Volga Dnepr Airlines Limited Liability Company|
|Volo Aviation, Llc|
|West Air Holdings Inc.|
|Western Air Charter, Inc.|
|Wind Rose Aviation Company|
|Wisconsin Aviation, Inc.|
|Worldwide Aircraft Services, Inc.|
|Worldwide Jet Charter, Inc.|
|Yangtze River Express Airlines Co. Ltd.|
|Zest Aviation Pvt Ltd|
|1263343 Alberta Inc|
|650584 Alberta Inc.|
|Acass Europe S.R.L.|
|Acp Jet Charters Inc|
|Aereotcla, S.A. De C.V.|
|Aero Charter Airlines|
|Aero Salmon S.A. De C.V.|
|Aero Servicios Regiomontanos S.A.|
|Aerodiplomatic, Sa De Cv|
|Aerolane Lineas Aereas Nacionales Del Ecuador S.A.|
|Aerolineas Ejecutivas, S.A. De C.V.|
|Aerotaxis Metropolitanos, S.A. De C.V.|
|Aerovias Del Continente Americano|
|Afrijet Business Service|
|Air America Inc|
|Air Charter Service, Inc.|
|Air Company “Black Sea Airlines” Limited Liability Company|
|Air Company Sirius-Aero Ltd|
|Air Gato Enterprises, Inc.|
|Air India Limited|
|Air Nunavut Ltd|
|Air One Aviation Pvt. Ltd.|
|Air Zimbabwe (Private) Ltd.|
|Airasia X Berhad|
|Aircompany Meridian Ltd|
|Aircraft Services Group, Inc.|
|Airmid Aviation Services Ltd.|
|Alianza Glancelot, C.A.|
|Amerijet International Incorporated|
|Anguilla Air Services Ltd|
|Ar Airways Pvt. Ltd.|
|Arabasco Arabian Aircraft|
|Arc En Ciel|
|Arik Air Limited|
|Avior Airlines Ca|
|Ayit Aviation & Tourism Ltd.|
|Bahamasair Holdings Ltd|
|Balmoral Central Contracts|
|Bohlke International Airways Inc.|
|Boliviana De Aviacion, Boa|
|Brasil Vida Taxi Aereo|
|Ca “Classica Air” S.R.L.|
|Cameroon Airlines Corporation|
|Caribbean Helicopters Limited|
|Cavok Air Limited Liability Company|
|Cfs Aviation Cc|
|Cham Wings Airlines|
|Chicago Jet Group|
|Cjsc Airline Iraero|
|Clairmont Holdings Ltd.|
|Compania Aeriana “Sky Prim” Air S.R.L.|
|Cubana De Aviacion S.A.|
|Dumont Aircraft Charter, Llc|
|Eastway Aviation, L.L.C|
|Emerald Jets S.A.L|
|Empire San Marino Srl.|
|Eolo Plus S.A. De C.V.|
|Eon Aviation Pvt. Ltd.|
|Execujet Charter Service, Inc.|
|Executive Air Craft Ltd.|
|Executive Aircraft Services|
|Executive Sky Dispatch & Management|
|Falcon Aviation Services|
|Fast Air Ltd.|
|Federal State Unitary Air Enterpris|
|First Mandarin Business Aviation Co|
|Flight Options Llc|
|Flightpath Charter Airways Inc.|
|Fly One S.R.L.|
|Fortune Air (Pty) Ltd|
|Gary Jet Center, Inc.|
|Genel Havacilik A.S.|
|Global Aviation Operations (Pty) Ltd|
|Golden West Airlines, Inc|
|Gryphon Airlines S.A. (Pty) Ltd|
|Helicopteros Dominicanos S.A.|
|Hff Travel Airways|
|Ics Aero Sm S.R.L.|
|Image Air Charter, Llc|
|India Flysafe Aviation Limited|
|Insel Air International B.V.|
|Inter Aviation Services (Pty) Limited|
|Inter Iles Air|
|International Jet Aviation Services, Inc.|
|Iran Aseman Airlines|
|Iraq Gate Company|
|Irka Havacilik Ve Turizm Ltd. Sti.|
|Island Airlines, Llc|
|Izhavia Public Stock Company|
|Jem Air Holdings Llc|
|Jet Aviation Flight Services Inc|
|Jetstream Aviation Llc|
|Jindal Steel & Power Ltd|
|Joint Stock Company “Air Company “Yakutia”|
|Joint Stock Company “Aircompany Grodno”|
|Joint Stock Company “Rusjet”|
|Journey Aviation, Llc|
|Kaan Havacilik Sanayi Ve Ticaret A.S.|
|Kabo Air Limited|
|Kalitta Charters Llc|
|Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter Ltd|
|Kenn Borek Air Ltd.|
|Kogalymavia Airlines Ltd|
|Lan Cargo S.A.|
|Lan Peru S.A.|
|Latam Airlines Group, S.A.|
|Linea Aerea Carguera De Colombia S.A.|
|Llc “Air Company Somon Air”|
|Llc Aircompany Zetavia|
|Lynden Air Cargo, Llc|
|M/S Ligare Aviation Ltd.|
|M/S Shaheen Air International Limited|
|Mandarin Air Co., Ltd|
|Med-View Airline Nigeria Limited|
|Metropolitan Aviation, Llc|
|Miami Air International, Inc.|
|Minsheng International Jet Co., Ltd|
|Montserrat Airways Ltd|
|Motor Sich Jsc|
|Mountain Air Cargo, Inc.|
|Mustique Airways Limited|
|Nasjet, Business Aviation|
|National Air Services (Nas)|
|National Helicopters Inc.|
|New World Aviation, Inc|
|Oklahoma Aviation Llc|
|Omni Sky S.A. De C.V.|
|Orange Air, Llc|
|Pal Aerospace Ltd.|
|Pan African Airways Limited|
|Pan Havacilik Ve Ticaret A.S (Panjet)|
|Pegasus Elite Aviation, Inc|
|Pentastar Aviation Charter Inc.|
|Phoenix Aviation Limited|
|Pinnacle Air Charter Llc|
|Pjsc Bukovyna Airlines|
|Pmb Aviation Company Shar Inc. Ltd.|
|Polaris Aviation Solutions, L.L.C.|
|Premier Aviation L.L.C.|
|Presidential Aviation, Llc|
|Priester Aviation, Llc|
|Privatair Saudi Arabia Ltd.|
|Private Corporation “International Joint- Stock Aviation Company “Urga”|
|Privilege Airways Pvt Ltd|
|Pro Airways, Llc|
|Pt. Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk|
|Public Joint-Stock Company “Pskovavia”|
|Public Jsc Kharkiv Airlines|
|Rec Havacilik Tasimacilik Tur. Ve Tic. A.S.|
|Rectrix Aviation, Inc|
|Reliance Air Charters Limited|
|Revesco Aviation Pty Ltd|
|Rsvp Jet , Inc|
|S.T.A (Services Et Transports Aeriens)|
|Saint Vincent Grenadines Air (1990)|
|Saturn Aviation, Llc|
|Scott Aviation, Llc|
|Seaborne Virgin Island Inc.|
|Seguranca Taxi Aereo Ltda.|
|Servicios Aereos Profesionales, S.A.|
|Servicios Integrales De Aviacion S.A. De C.V.|
|Shanghai Deer Jet Co, Ltd|
|Shearwater Air Ii, Llc|
|Short Hills Aviation Services Inc.|
|Sichuan Airlines Co., Ltd|
|Silk Way Airlines Llc|
|Sky One Holdings, Llc|
|Sociedade De Taxi Aereo Weston Ltda|
|Southern Air Systems, Inc|
|Springfield Aircraft Charter And Sales Inc|
|State Air Enterprise Ukraine|
|Sunset Aviation, Llc.|
|Superior Transportation Associates, Inc|
|Swift Flite (Pty) Ltd.|
|Syphax Airlines S.A.|
|Tarkim Ucak Bakim Onarim Ve|
|Taxi Aereo De Veracruz S.A. De C.V.|
|Texel Air W.L.L|
|Tianjin Airlines Co.,Ltd|
|Tjs San Marino Srl|
|Trans Anguilla Airways (2000) Ltd|
|Trans-Exec Air Service, Inc|
|Transporte Aereo Tecnico Ejecutivo S.A De C.V. (Tatesa)|
|True Aviation Charter Services Llc|
|Unitary Enterprise “Rubystar”|
|Utair Closed Joint Stock Company|
|Veteran Avia Llc|
|Volare Aviation Gsy Ltd.|
|Voyager Jet Center|
|Voyageur Airways Limited|
|Vrg Linhas Aereas S/A|
|Western Global Airlines Llc|
|Wheels Up Charter Llc|
|White Cloud Charter L.L.C.|
|Windward Express Airways N.V.|
|Windward Islands Airway International N.V. (Winair)|
|Wings Of Lebanon S.A.L.|
|Zorlu Air Havacilik A.S.|
|Ahs Air International Pvt Ltd|
|Air Company Scat, Jsc|
|Airline Comlux-Kz L.L.C.|
|Global Africa Aviation (Pvt) Ltd.|
|Prime Aviation Jsc|
The European Commission released on 16. June 2016 a new list of Airlines which are banned from operating within the European Union.
In total, 218 airlines have been listed, for which the embargo applies and 6 airlines that may operate only under restrictions within the European Union air space.
**remark: All carriers from Liberia are banned, no airlines were named**
According to the European Commision, the banned air carriers do not meet the required European aviation safety standards.
For assessment, the Directorate General for Mobility and Transport -DG MOVE use several sources and follow due process, as described in the Annex (Common Criteria) of the EU Regulation for the Air Safety List, Reg. 2111/2005.(follow the link)
|Air Service Comores|
|Air Fast Congo|
|Busy Bee Congo|
|Compagnie Africaine D’Aviation (Caa)|
|Doren Air Congo|
|Transair Cargo Services|
|Ariana Afghan Airlines|
|Air Bishkek (Formerly Eastok Avia)|
|Avia Traffic Company|
|Central Asian Aviation Services (Caas)|
|S Group International (Formerly S Group Aviation)|
|Sky Kg Airlines|
|Sky Way Air|
|Ghadames Air Transport|
|Global Aviation And Services|
|Angola Air Services|
|Taag Angola Airlines|
|Benin Golf Air|
|Benin Littoral Airways|
|Trans Air Benin|
|Canadian Airways Congo|
|Equatorial Congo Airlines S.A.|
|Trans Air Congo|
|Air Tourist (Allegiance)|
|Nationale Et Regionale Transport (Nationale)|
|Nouvelle Air Affaires Gabon (Sn2Ag)|
|Solenta Aviation Gabon|
|Air Born Indonesia|
|Air Pacific Utama|
|Alfa Trans Dirgantata|
|Alda Trans Papua|
|Angkasa Super Services|
|Dabi Air Nusantara|
|Deraya Air Taxi|
|Derazona Air Service|
|Dirgantara Air Service|
|Elang Lintas Indonesia|
|Elang Nusantara Air|
|Enggang Air Service|
|Ersa Eastern Aviation|
|Gatari Air Service|
|Indonesia Air Asia Extra|
|Indonesia Air Transport|
|Intan Angkasa Air Service|
|Johnlin Air Transport|
|Matthew Air Nusantara|
|My Indo Airlines|
|National Utility Helicopter|
|Nusantara Air Charter|
|Pegasus Air Services|
|Pelita Air Service|
|Penerbangan Angkasa Semesta|
|Pura Wisata Baruna|
|Sayap Garuda Indah|
|Transnusa Aviation Mandiri|
|Transwisata Prima Aviation|
|Travel Express Aviation Service|
|Trigana Air Service|
|Tri Mg Intra Asia Airlines|
|Weststar Aviation Indonesia|
|Wing Abadi Airlines|
|Avia-Jaynar / Avia-Zhaynar|
|Fly Jet Kz|
|Inter Airways LDA|
|CHC Helicopteros LDA|
|Cfm – Trabalhos E Transportes Aéreos Lda|
|Coa – Coastal Aviation|
|Cpy – Cropsprayers|
|Cra – Cr Aviation Lda|
|Everett Aviation LDA|
|Eta – Empresa De Transportes Aéreos Lda|
|Hcp – Helicopteros Capital Lda|
|Lam – Linhas Aereas De Moçambique S.A.|
|Mex – Moçambique Expresso, Sarl Mex|
|Ohi – Omni Helicopteros International Lda|
|Saf – Safari Air Lda|
|Sam – Solenta Aviation Mozambique, Sa|
|Air Dynasty Heli.S.|
|Manang Air Pvt Ltd|
|Nepal Airlines Corporation|
|Yeti Airlines Domestic|
|Blue Bird Aviation|
|Green Flag Aviation|
|Kata Air Transport|
|Sun Air Company|
|Air Rum, Ltd|
|Destiny Air Services, Ltd|
|Orange Air Sierra Leone Ltd|
|Paramount Airlines, Ltd|
|Seven Four Eight Air Services Ltd|
|Blue Wing Airlines|
The “common criteria” for consideration of an operating ban for safety reasons at Community level are mainly –
As the above graphic shows, the EU-ban-list involves mainly Asian (48%) and African Airlines (52%).
Significant Changes, comparing to June 2016:
The results of the EU-Commission fairly resemble to the audit results of the ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Programm (USOAP) –
At the beginning of the 1980’s , the first Low Cost Airlines (LCC) were initially ridiculed as a peripheral “exotic” business case phenomenon, especially by global network or national flag carrier. No one from the established airlines sincerely believed that it can be a sustainable and successful business model, or even constitute a threat or an serious alternative to their existing business model.
With rising number of passengers, traffic capacities and sales revenues over the last 30 years, the low-cost airline business is a very successful concept and copied by many network carriers and newly founded airlines.
The most important question within our research. Approximately 176 Airlines worldwide claimes to operate as Low Cost Carrier, we examined them all: we have set up different criteria and categorized every single airline – here are the results –
Together, the o.g. Airlines offer more then 749.000 Seats per day and covering 4031 Destinations worldwide.
The LCC Carrier produces with less costs then the Regular Airlines.
That economic efficiency is reflected also on the price structure, the graphic below shows the average cost savings of LCC’s in comparison to the avearge fares of FSC’s
According to our passenger satisfactory survey (COSY) , more than 1. 400 Business Traveller’s evaluated 62 international airlines , including LCC’s – The gap between FSC’s and LCC’s is getting smaller.
Rating scale : 1 = poor —-> 5 = Excellent
The differences of business concept are becoming smaller, a rapprochement between FSC and LCC is already taking place and will continue
With rising numbers of passengers, traffic capacities and sales revenues over the last 35 years, the Low-Cost Airline business is a very successful concept for short and medium flights.
Would this Business concept work also for long haul flights? Low budget for long-haul flights is actually not a new idea, but the realization had many failed attempts.
Norwegian Air Shuttle and AirAsia X currently taking the challenge up again and fly long-distance flights across the Atlantic and Southeast Asia. The key question is, can the present Low-Cost Concept work over long haul sectors, and will they be more successful than their predecessors this time?
The main concept of Low-Cost model focuses on business and operational practices that drive down costs, includes operating at secondary airports, flying a single airplane type, increasing airplane utilization, relying on direct marketing and sales, single class concept, no frequent-flyer programs, and keeping manpower costs low.
Comparing to Network Airlines, Low-Cost Carrier reduced in average unit cost by 35 percent to 45 percent, mainly by focusing cost cutting on those cost sectors, which are directly under their influence.
The two charts above show the distribution of total operating expenses by low-cost carriers and network airlines. The highest costs for Low-Cost Carrier are lying there, which they cannot control or take direct influence on.
The charts below demonstrate the different cost distribution by Network Airline and Low Cost Carrier
The Table below list the main operating cost factors that can be influenced by an airline:
The feasibility of Low-Cost for long-haul Sectors will depend mainly on the ability of the Airlines to control the operating expenses.
Adapting Low-Cost concept for potential cost savings
The current Low-Cost Concept has proven to be a very successful business, can it be applied for long-haul sector?
The potential savings can be located mainly in:
Increasing Load Factors and Seat Densities
Most gains will come from high seat densities. A comparison to European Network Airlines shows that they have also high Passenger Load factors and dense Eco cabins, here in average – (source: AirlineProfiler)
Transatlantic Routes, average
Europe to Asia, average
Within Europe, average Network
Within Europe, average Regional
Average Load Factor Worldwide, all Ranges
High Passenger Load Factors and dense Seat-Configurations on long haul sectors is already implemented, and will continue. The Eco-Seating or Single Class Concept (especially for domestic or regional routes) is increasing, business class seating is reduced and expanded by Premium Economy. The First Class Concept is strongly reduced and many airlines re-considering the concept or even cancel the service completely. This factor will not provide Low Cost Carriers a clear and present advantageous comparing to Network Airlines.
Airframe-, Aerodynamic improvements, reducing fuel consumption
Cost reduction through utilization of aerodynamic improved airframes and more economical engines, can provide a large contribution to cost reduction.
Fuel represents approximately 50 percent of the total trip cost, for every carried tonne of fuel , 0,5 tonnes of fuel will be burnt to carry it. The Airframe- and Engine-Manufacturer predict for the short term Fuel burn savings of 2 percent to 4 percent, with new technologies in the long term, estimated fuel burn savings are predicted to be in the region of 10 percent to 12 percent.
The Boeing B787 is very fuel efficient airplane, therefore it is very likely that the Low-Cost Carrier will prefer to operate with this type of aircraft or similar (e.g. Airbus 350, Airbus A330 Neo, revamped B737 or A320 with extended range).
But to launch an attack on the long haul market, the Low-Cost Airline needs an adequate number of aircraft to be able to serve the required destinations with sufficient frequencies.
Boeing and Airbus are working flat out and have a long waiting list: within the next 8 years, the delivery of 657 Boeing B787 and 456 Airbus A350 is planned.
Also in planning are the revamped versions of narrow body aircraft like Boeing B737 and Airbus A320 as extended range versions, capable to cross the Atlantic, facing the same problem of a long production line.
In summary, for long-haul flights the aircraft efficiency and a lean airline fleet will play an important role, but due to the long aircraft production periods it will take years for a Low Cost Airline to build up an adequate fleet. This time span will be used also by the Network Airlines to upgrade their airplanes, convert fleets and modify business concepts.
Passenger traffic, Punctuality and Aircraft Utilization
Punctuality and high aircraft utilization are a key factor to run a robust operation and to create a cost-effective business. On the short- and medium-haul, Low-Cost Carrier made it to their strongest feature.
On long Haul sectors, network carriers already achieving a significant performance, in average 13-15 hours aircraft utilization and over 80 percent punctual flights. The possibilities increasing flight rotations are exhausted, because long haul flights needs longer turn around times for boarding, Loading, servicing and fueling. Longer flying hours can violate crew duty time regulations and run up against time zones and airport curfews.
Flying to less congested secondary airports will not be so easy, because the necessary infrastructure such as runway length, fire brigades categories, maintenance facilities, certified handling agents, handling support and the necessary ground support equipment could be not available.
To operate on primary international airports will not gain any savings, exactly the contrary, monopoly like status means higher fees, lower crew utilization, additional overnight costs will increase expenses and reduce crew productivity.
In summary, high performance with low operational expenses can hardly be combined, the Low-Cost Carrier will presumably face the same expenses as the incumbent airlines, because this costs are beyond their influential range or unavoidable.
Generating new traffic or diversion from other transportation mode
As outlined above, high passenger load factors (>82%) are essential for long haul operations, the question raises now is how will the Low-Cost Airlines manage to achieve this high load factors.
With the low fares concept, it was assumed that the Low-Cost Carriers stimulated new traffic in addition to network and charter airlines. According to our previous Low-Cost Market Study, we assume that the Low Cost Concept did not generate new passenger traffic but more by taking market shares from incumbent airlines, in particular the displacement of the regional carrier and charter airlines.
Generating more air traffic by diversion from other transportation mode is a possible option for domestic and regional flights, but not for international long haul destinations (e.g.transatlantic flights).
The Low-Cost Carriers must therefore gain market shares directly from the network airlines, because they have no evasive options.
Attacking the last stronghold of network airlines
The Low-Cost Carrier will focus destinations with the strongest traffic. The illustrations and chart below show the potential areas in which very probably the preferred destinations will be located.
source: Airports Council International
source: Airports Council International
At the time, it is assumed that the optimal flight duration should not exceed 6 – 7 hours.
Apparently, Jetblue, Air Asia and Scoot are flying up to 6.5 hours, but it seems to be more an exception. As the illustration above shows, the average flight time between the probable destinations is above 8 hours. In the mean time, Norwegian already operates longer and established a foothold in the transatlantic market, because they have a fleet of seven brand B787 and manage to keep the airplanes 17-18 hours per day in the air.
A direct implementation of the current LCC concept on long-haul sectors is ineffective. All operational advantages of the short- and medium- haul sectors and resulting cost savings remain without the desired results.
Estimated cost savings potential, if current Low Cost Concept will adapted for Long-Haul Sectors
To gain market shares on the expense of the incumbent airlines will be very difficult and will not remain without countermeasures.
The only possibility to get a foothold in to the market will be very low air fares , but on the long term it cannot be maintained, as long-haul flights are very expensive operations.
Overall, the present concept for long haul low cost airlines seems not having any differentiation in the next years from the incumbent airlines, mainly because of the specificities of the long-distance operations.
A new concept is necessary, which take into account the specificities of the long-distance operations, combining emerging aviation technologies and information technology, demand and supply –driven, flexible networks and aircraft management, focused on customer comfort service providing a mix of premium and comfort classes.
Since 2003 the International Air Transport Association IATA has been awarding an IOSA Certificate for adherence to certain operational safety standards. The IOSA certification has been mandatory for all IATA-members since 2007. New applicants may nowadays only become IATA-members under the condition that they possess an IOSA-certificate. To this day, 402 air transport companies have such an industry standard certificate, 248 of them are IATA members.
The objectives of the IOSA Program: Improvement of operational safety procedures
The primary objective of this program is the standardization of the audit implementation/practices and the implementation of the IOSA “Standards and Recommended Practices “- (ISARPs) into the operational processes of an air transport company. The ISARPs have been developed in cooperation with the leading airlines world-wide and aviation authorities (among them FAA, CASA, JAA, Transport Canada) and are recognized as an international industrial standard for operational safety procedures. A further intended objective is the significant reduction of the number of (redundant) audits under the IATA members (“Audit-Sharing”).
Results of the IOSA Audit: IOSA Certification
After the conclusion of the audit procedure the air transport company will receive an IOSA-certificate, under the condition that all the results (Findings & Observations) from the audit are rectified within 12 months of the conclusion of the audit.
The IOSA certificate is valid for a period of 24 months and must be renewed before its expiry date.
The following areas form the main focus of an IOSA Audits:
The IOSA audit procedure is regulated in the IOSA Program Manual. The ISARPs are listed in the IOSA Standard Manual.
Implementation of an IOSA Audit-Procedure:
The IOSA-audits are exclusively carried out by certified and economically independent Audit Organizations (AO).
Currently, they are 8 Audit Organizations worldwide licensed by IATA.
After the conclusion of an audit contract, the Audit Organizations will put a team of auditors together, mostly consisting of specialists in the individual areas mentioned above.
The auditing team will conduct the audit usually with 5 auditors, including a “Lead-Auditor”. The Lead Auditor is responsible for the conduction of the audit and compilation of the IOSA Audit Report (“IAR”- Final Report), which is decisive for the further course of the certification process.
During the audit, more than 900 ISARPs from all operational areas of an air transport company will be reviewed for their documentation (controlled documentation) and implementation. The auditors use mostly computer-controlled checklists and go through the ISARPs in the sequence defined in the ISM.
Should an airline’s standard not conform to the IOSA specifications, this will be recorded as a “Finding”. The airline is granted a period of 12 months (starting from the date of the final audit meeting) to rectify all “Findings” and present the Corrective Action Record to the Audit Organization.
After the successful conclusion of the process the Audit Organization shall declare the IOSA Audit to be completed and recommend accepting the airline into the “IOSA Registry”.
The IOSA-audit is usually accomplished within 5 days and is free of charge for IATA members.
Enhanced IOSA audit process: Add-on for IOSA Audit Procedure
The Enhanced IOSA procedure focuses airline’s self-auditing and quality assurance programs, to ensure continued conformity with IOSA “Standards and Recommended Practices “- (ISARPs).
The additional procedure should increase efficiency to the evaluation of operational safety and security practices.
What will change?
Audit Organizations (AO) will continue to conduct the on-site renewal audit every 24 months, and also focus on ensuring the IOSA standards are implemented by operators.
Before renewal Audit, the AO will receive a conformance report as a record of the airline internal quality program and audit activities.
The airline is responsible to ensure the implementation of the ISARPs and shall demonstrate the reliability and integrity of their internal quality assurance system, throughout the 24 months registration period.
The Enhanced IOSA is for all IOSA renewal audits as of September 2015 mandatory, until then, on a voluntary basis.
Marc Israel | AirlineProfiler
The objective of passenger surveys is , by asking a series of questions to gather information about what most traveler’s do or think about an airline, flight, service or airport lounge etc.
Subsequently, the gathered information and data must be evaluated in a meaningfull way, so the right conclusions and decisions can be done.
Sounds simple, but it is not: since we are dealing with a subjective perception and opinions, the results are involved with particular situations and emotional feelings, which sometimes complicates the correct interpretation.
This small example is to illustrate how difficult it will be to interpret this passengers score objective and meaningful.
Is there an optimal concept or solution to achieve the above mentioned objective?
There are two common ways of implementation and interpretation of passenger survey:
According to recent media reports, the solution to conduct audits with so called “audit experts” seems not to be an optimal solution, see e.g. decision of Etihad or UK’s Advertising Standards Authority Ltd , adjudication on Skytrax Research.
So, what remains is the old fashioned way: ask your passengers by yourself !
And that is exactley what our clients are doing.
Our clients, mostly travel departments and travel managers of large european corporations uses the AirlineProfiler to assess Airlines. The survey module provides a good supplement to complete the entirely picture of an airline by including the perspective of passengers.
The survey modul COSY is a free of charge additional service to our AirlineProfiler clients and subscribers.
Some Details about our Survey Modul:
The survey consists of 10 questions and 4 additional disclosures per flight. The application is available on all platforms, and especially suitable for smartphones (85% of the passengers own a smartphone). Also here, the customer needs to enter only the flight number.
Duartion per survey approx. 20-30 seconds per flight.
In order to obtain comparable results as possible, each rating score passes through five weighting factors –
According to corporate standards means, to take the expectations and standards into account of the company which conducts the survey
Comparability of Airlines
Airlines are not the same, actually each Airline is very unique, therefore also the survey results.
To be able to compare the score of an airline with the results of other airlines it is necessary to determine the comparability. Screening the basic structure of each airline and seeking for similarities helps us to examine the comparability, e.g
• Cost structure, revenue structure and productivity
• Fleet composition.
• Traffic System markets: market dominance, market share and competitive position
• Flight Safety, Quality Image, on-board service, timeliness.
• Distribution channels and pricing policies,
• General company profile, business structure
The more similarities means more comparability with other airlines. This is also taken into account in the overall assessment of the survey together with the weighting factors. For more information, please refer to us with the subject “Twinning Factors – Airline Profiler”.
Small review on results
We selected the period between March- June 2014 , 2013 business travelers (from the pharmaceutical and chemical sector) participated , 1330 valid surveys received, with more then 18.600 answered questions. In total 62 Airlines have been evaluated , 99 % IATA Members.
Composition of the score –
Passenger SCORE for each issue = min 1 point —-> max. 5 points per question
+ Weighting factor 1
+ Weighting factor 2
+ Weighting factor 3
+ Weighting factor 4
+ Weighting factor 5
+ Overall impression of the flight
The highest score of 5 points overall means the airline fulfilled passengers expectations with 100% – here a short review of degree of fulfillment , sorted by airline, expressed in % –
Airline received more than 600 evaluated answered questions (some airlines narrowly missed the above mentioned requirement and would have raised the average).
Busines Class, longhaul flights , schedule carrier
Twinning factor: > 60 %
Questions treated :
The business traveler’s testified the airlines in average 75 % fulfillment, i.e. high score. Also in questions of punctuality (arrival) , luggage handling and connecting flights, the airlines and airports presented a very professional operational performance. But we have to bear in mind , we still deal with subjective assessment and very short snapshots, i.e. to obtain a better and more comprehensive picture, we have to observe longer and get more reviews.
Score sorted by Alliances
Business class, longhaul flights, sorted by regions
Important key points for business travelers
DATA Sheet for evaluation – CSV or Excel format – Excerpt
The modul provides for each client and survey a data sheet in CSV format , automatically.
For more information, questions or and data, please contact research[at]airlineprofiler.eu
Our Network Partner JACDEC – Experts for Accident evaluation – published a new accident comparison between DHC-800 and ATR-72.
This short review presents an accident overview of the Last 15 Years (1999-2013) , also the affected airlines and list all airlines which operates with ATR-72 and DHC-8-400 .
The accident causes are still being analyzed and will be published soon.
There is no end to the bad news for the US aircraft manufacturer Boeing, it seems therefore likely that the B787 breakdown series is associated with flight safety.
Is the B787 aircraft safe?
We examined this question as outlined below.
To get started, we need first to understand, what “flight safety” means.
There is no universal and officially determined definition of the concept of “flight safety”. It is rather a combination of several required conditions so that a flight reaches its destination with a maximum of safety and a minimum risk of accidents, hence, an interaction between rules, environmental influences and technical and human factors.
Flight safety is the desired optimum state in which flight operations are executed in circumstances that can be controlled as sustainably as possible with minimal (tolerable) risk.
Presupposing that there is a sufficiently large database, however, specific safety characteristics can be determined for certain airlines, types of aircraft or regions of the world.
However, reliable statements with respect to flight safety can be made only in a longer term analysis and with a greatest possible coverage of accident data.
To answer the above question it must be checked if there are already sufficient reliable statements, or not, which allow stating negative safety characteristics.
The legislator requires sustainable and verifiable airworthiness for all aircrafts.
Airworthiness is a basic precondition for the desired optimum state. If it does not exist, flight safety is not given, if it is restored, the optimum state can be reached again.
The problems with B787 were caused by individual aircraft components, which were submitted to an airworthiness procedure; they have been solved with technical directives being passed to manufacturers and airlines. In other words, the airworthiness is restored.
The Federal Aviation Administration, briefly FAA, is responsible for these directives and the European Aviation Safety Agency EASA for Europe.
In the opinion of the competent authorities, there are no further concerns regarding the flight safety of B787.
Let’s proceed and check the Airlines behavior: do they share the statements of the authorities and manufacturer?
The order list could provide a hint
Till today, 84 aircrafts of type B787 have been delivered to 14 airlines:
Overall, 58 airlines have ordered 896 aircrafts up to 2020:
The traffic performance of the Boeing 787 shows a constant growing
Boeing 787 is a long-haul aircraft currently serving 98 destinations in 46 countries.
The B787 aircraft flies an estimated 310 million kilometers per year, which corresponds to the flight performance of a mid-size scheduled airline (e.g. Alaska Airways).
Despite the breakdown series, the customers still place their trust in “Dreamliner”, which is reflected in the high order quantities and the operational traffic.
Let’s get a closer view into the breakdownseries:
Occurrences associated with the operation of an aircraft are classified into three categories:
1. Accident (heaviest category)
2. Serious incident (medium category)
3. Incident (weakest category)
Since the B787 aircraft was put into service, the incidents can be graded into two occurrences:
• Fires or smoke in the passenger compartment or in the cargo compartment
• System failures which could have caused difficulties controlling the aircraft
The above occurrences fall in the category “serious incidents when operating an aircraft“ and entail an investigation by the Aviation Safety Authority.
The results of these investigations revealed that several airworthiness directives were passed to manufacturers and the airline.
The directives are immediately valid and binding. Once they have been implemented, the aircrafts are again considered as airworthy and thus safe for air traffic.
According to the competent authorities, there are no further concerns regarding the flight safety of B787.
We asked ourselves if the B787 breakdown series is particularly striking in comparison with other newly developed models.
The best comparable aircraft here would be Airbus A350, which has not been delivered yet.
So we must make comparisons with other models showing certain similarities to B787: flight distance, capacities or new developments (e.g. A380)
* Period – commissioning +10 years
(Note: B787 has been in service for 3 years only!)
It is noticeable that B787-8 has to deal with systemic ‘teething problems‘, however, this is due to the fact that B787 is a new development on the basis of a modified manufacturing process:
• built with composites only
• outsourcing of many components, which had thwarted the previous development, to foreign companies
There is still no comparable aircraft type being manufactured according to the same or similar method of production.
According to the competent authorities, there are no further concerns regarding the flight safety of B787.
Despite the breakdown series, the customers still place their trust in “Dreamliner”, which is reflected in the high order quantities.
When evidence of lasting operational safety has been provided, we consider B787 to be a very successful aircraft.
2. No verifiable evidence has been provided yet of how to repair damaged fuselage components, for example under mechanical load (e.g. Jetway collision) and thermal load (fire, lightning), if there are no more riveted joints that can be disconnected. In this case, entire fuselage sections (so-called “tons”) would rather have to be exchanged.
Boeing has left this question open so far.
©2013 | Tarmac Aviation GmbH | ©2013 JACDEC.DE | All Rights Reserved | Copyright Photos/Images/Illustrations/Grafics © 2013 Tarmac Aviation GmbH Germany, © 2013 iStockphoto LP